• 1
    Coussens LM, Werb Z. Inflammation and cancer. Nature 2002; 420: 8607.
  • 2
    Simmons DL, Blotting RM, Hla T. Cyclooxygenase isozymes: the biology of prostaglandin synthesis and inhibition. Pharmacol Rev 2004; 56: 387437.
  • 3
    Helliwell RJ, Adams LF, Mitchell MD. Prostaglandin synthases: recent developments and a novel hypothesis. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2004; 70: 10113.
  • 4
    Hata AN, Breyer RM. Pharmacology and signaling of prostaglandin receptors: multiple roles in inflammation and immune modulation. Pharmacol Ther 2004; 103: 14766.
  • 5
    Brash AR. Lipoxygenases: occurrence, funtions, catalysis, and acquisition of substrate. J Biol Chem 1999; 274: 2367982.
  • 6
    Krieg P, Heidt M, Siebert M, Kinzig A, Marks F, Furstenberger G. Epidermis-type lipoxygenases. Adv Exp Med Biol 2002; 507: 16570.
  • 7
    Yu Z, Schneider C, Boeglin WE, Marnett LJ, Brash AR. The lipoxygenase gene ALOXE3 implicated in skin differentiation encodes a hydroperoxide isomerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003; 100: 91627.
  • 8
    Uchida K. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal: a product and mediator of oxidative stress. Prog Lipid Res 2003; 42: 31843.
  • 9
    Norel X, Brink C. The quest for new cysteinyl-leukotriene and lipoxin receptors: recent clues. Pharmacol Ther 2004; 103: 8194.
  • 10
    Michalik L, Desvergne B, Wahli W. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors and cancers: complex stories. Nat Rev Cancer 2004; 4: 6170.
  • 11
    Marks F, Fürstenberger G. Eicosanoids and cancer. In: Marks F, Fürstenberger G, eds. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and other eicosanoids: from biogenesis to clinical applications. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 1999. 303330.
  • 12
    Dannenberg AJ, Subbaramaiah K. Targeting cyclooxygenase 2 in human neoplasia: rationale and promise. Cancer Cell 2003; 4: 4316.
  • 13
    Cuendet M, Pezzuto JM. The role of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase in cancer chemoprevention. Drug Metabol Drug Interact 2000; 17: 10957.
  • 14
    Denkert C, Winzer KJ, Hauptmann S. Prognostic impact of cyclooxygenase-2 in breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer 2004; 4: 42833.
  • 15
    Buskens CJ, Van Rees BP, Sivula A, Reitsma JB, Haglund C, Bosma PJ, Offerhaus GJ, Van Lanschot JJ, Ristimaki A. Prognostic significance of elevated cyclooxygenase 2 expression in patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 18007.
  • 16
    Mrena J, Wiksten JP, Thiel A, Kokkola A, Pohjola L, Lundin J, Nordling S, Ristimaki A, Haglund C. Cyclooxygenase-2 is an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer and its expression is regulated by the messenger RNA stability factor HuR. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11: 73628.
  • 17
    Laga AC, Zander DS, Cagle PT. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase 2 expression in 259 cases of non-small cell lung cancer. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2005; 129: 11137.
  • 18
    Juuti A, Louhimo J, Nordling S, Ristimaki A, Haglund C. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression correlates with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. J Clin Pathol 2006; 59: 3826.
  • 19
    Rubio J, Ramos D, Lopez-Guerrero JA, Iborra I, Collado A, Solsona E, Almenar S, Llombart-Bosch A. Immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67 antigen, Cox-2 and Bax/Bcl-2 in prostate cancer; prognostic value in biopsies and radical prostatectomy specimens. Eur Urol 2005; 48: 74551.
  • 20
    Sales KJ, Katz AA, Howard B, Soeters RP, Millar RP, Jabbour HN. Cyclooxygenase-1 is up-regulated in cervical carcinomas: autocrine/paracrine regulation of cyclooxy-genase-2, prostaglandin e receptors, and angiogenic factors by cyclooxygenase-1. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 42432.
  • 21
    Gupta RA, Tejada LV, Tong BJ, Das SK, Morrow JD, Dey SK, DuBois RN. Cyclooxygenase-1 is overexpressed and promotes angiogenic growth factor production in ovarian cancer. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 90611.
  • 22
    Chariyalertsak S, Sirikulchayanonta V, Mayer D, Kopp-Schneider A, Furstenberger G, Marks F, Muller-Decker K. Aberrant cyclooxygenase isozyme expression in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Gut 2001; 48: 806.
  • 23
    Langenbach R, Loftin CD, Lee C, Tiano H. Cyclooxygenase-deficient mice. A summary of their characteristics and susceptibilities to inflammation and carcinogenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999; 889: 5261.
  • 24
    Oshima M, Dinchuk JE, Kargman SL, Oshima H, Hancock B, Kwong E, Trzaskos JM, Evans JF, Taketo MM. Suppression of intestinal polyposis in Apc δ716 knockout mice by inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Cell 1996; 87: 8039.
  • 25
    Chulada PC, Thompson MB, Mahler JF, Doyle CM, Gaul BW, Lee C, Tiano HF, Morham SG, Smithies O, Langenbach R. Genetic disruption of Ptgs-1, as well as Ptgs-2, reduces intestinal tumorigenesis in Min mice. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 47058.
  • 26
    Neufang G, Furstenberger G, Heidt M, Marks F, Muller-Decker K. Abnormal differentiation of epidermis in transgenic mice constitutively expressing cyclooxygenase-2 in skin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001; 98: 762934.
  • 27
    Muller-Decker K, Neufang G, Berger I, Neumann M, Marks F, Furstenberger G. Transgenic cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression sensitizes mouse skin for carcinogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99: 124838.
  • 28
    Muller-Decker K, Berger I, Ackermann K, Ehemann V, Zoubova S, Aulmann S, Pyerin W, Furstenberger G. Cystic duct dilatations and proliferative epithelial lesions in mouse mammary glands upon keratin 5 promoter-driven overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2. Am J Pathol 2005; 166: 57584.
  • 29
    Klein RD, Van Pelt CS, Sabichi AL, Dela Cerda J, Fischer SM, Furstenberger G, Muller-Decker K. Transitional cell hyperplasia and carcinomas in urinary bladders of transgenic mice with keratin 5 promoter-driven cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 180813.
  • 30
    Liu CH, Chang SH, Narko K, Trifan OC, Wu MT, Smith E, Haudenschild C, Lane TF, Hla T. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 is sufficient to induce tumorigenesis in transgenic mice. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 185639.
  • 31
    Narko K, Ristimaki A, MacPhee M, Smith E, Haudenschild CC, Hla T. Tumorigenic transformation of immortalized ECV endothelial cells by cyclooxygenase-1 overexpression. J Biol Chem 1997; 272: 2145560.
  • 32
    Reddy BS, Hirose Y, Lubet R, Steele V, Kelloff G, Paulson S, Seibert K, Rao CV. Chemoprevention of colon cancer by specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, administered during different stages of carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 2937.
  • 33
    Steinbach G, Lynch PM, Phillips RK, Wallace MH, Hawk E, Gordon GB, Wakabayashi N, Saunders B, Shen Y, Fujimura T, Su LK, Levin B. The effect of celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, in familial adenomatous polyposis. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 194652.
  • 34
    Grosser T, Fries S, FitzGerald GA. Biological basis for the cardiovascular consequences of COX-2 inhibition: therapeutic challenges and opportunities. J Clin Invest 2006; 116: 415.
  • 35
    Shureiqi I, Lippman SM. Lipoxygenase modulation to reverse carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 630712.
  • 36
    Catalano A, Procopio A. New aspects on the role of lipoxgenases in cancer progression. Histol Histopathol 2005; 20: 96975.
  • 37
    Shureiqi I, Wojno KJ, Poore JA, Reddy RG, Moussalli MJ, Spindler SA, Greenson JK, Normolle D, Hasan AA, Lawrence TS, Brenner DE. Decreased 13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid levels and 15-lipoxygenase-1 expression in human colon cancers. Carcinogenesis 1999; 20: 198595.
  • 38
    Subbarayan V, Xu XC, Kim J, Yang P, Hoque A, Sabichi AL, Llansa N, Mendoza G, Logothetis CJ, Newman RA, Lippman SM, Menter DG. Inverse relationship between 15-lipoxygenase-2 and PPAR-γ gene expression in normal epithelia compared with tumor epithelia. Neoplasia 2005; 7: 28093.
  • 39
    Gonzalez AL, Roberts RL, Massion PP, Olson SJ, Shyr Y, Shappell SB. 15-Lipoxygenase-2 expression in benign and neoplastic lung: an immunohistochemical study and correlation with tumor grade and proliferation. Hum Pathol 2004; 35: 8409.
  • 40
    Shappell SB, Boeglin WE, Olson SJ, Kasper S, Brash AR. 15-Lipoxygenase-2 (15-LOX-2) is expressed in benign prostatic epithelium and reduced in prostate adenocarcinoma. Am J Pathol 1999; 155: 23545.
  • 41
    Shappell SB, Keeney DS, Zhang J, Page R, Olson SJ, Brash AR. 15-Lipoxygenase-2 expression in benign and neoplastic sebaceous glands and other cutaneous adnexa. J Invest Dermatol 2001; 117: 3643.
  • 42
    Jiang WG, Douglas-Jones A, Mansel RE. Levels of expression of lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenase-2 in human breast cancer. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2003; 69: 27581.
  • 43
    Ohd JF, Nielsen CK, Campbell J, Landberg G, Lofberg H, Sjolander A. Expression of the leukotriene D4 receptor CysLT1, COX-2, and other cell survival factors in colorectal adenocarcinomas. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: 5770.
  • 44
    Hennig R, Grippo P, Ding XZ, Rao SM, Buchler MW, Friess H, Talamonti MS, Bell RH, Adrian TE. 5-Lipoxygenase, a marker for early pancreatic intraepithelial neoplastic lesions. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 60116.
  • 45
    Gupta S, Srivastava M, Ahmad N, Sakamoto K, Bostwick DG, Mukhtar H. Lipoxygenase-5 is overexpressed in prostate adenocarcinoma. Cancer 2001; 91: 73743.
  • 46
    Gao X, Grignon DJ, Chbihi T, Zacharek A, Chen YQ, Sakr W, Porter AT, Crissman JD, Pontes JE, Powell IJ, Honn KV. Elevated 12-lipoxygenase mRNA expression correlates with advanced stage and poor differentiation of human prostate cancer. Urology 1995; 46: 22737.
  • 47
    Krieg P, Kinzig A, Ress-Loschke M, Vogel S, Vanlandingham B, Stephan M, Lehmann WD, Marks F, Furstenberger G. 12-Lipoxygenase isoenzymes in mouse skin tumor development. Mol Carcinog 1995; 14: 11829.
  • 48
    Kim E, Rundhaug JE, Benavides F, Yang P, Newman RA, Fischer SM. An antitumorigenic role for murine 8S-lipoxygenase in skin carcinogenesis. Oncogene 2005; 24: 117487.
  • 49
    Muller K, Siebert M, Heidt M, Marks F, Krieg P, Furstenberger G. Modulation of epidermal tumor development caused by targeted overexpression of epidermis-type 12S-lipoxygenase. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 46106.
  • 50
    Shureiqi I, Chen D, Lotan R, Yang P, Newman RA, Fischer SM, Lippman SM. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 mediates nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced apoptosis independently of cyclooxygenase-2 in colon cancer cells. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 684650.
  • 51
    Hsi LC, Wilson LC, Eling TE. Opposing effects of 15-lipoxygenase-1 and -2 metabolites on MAPK signaling in prostate. Alteration in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 4054956.
  • 52
    Virmani J, Johnson EN, Klein-Szanto AJ, Funk CD. Role of ‘platelet-type’ 12-lipoxygenase in skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett 2001; 162: 1615.
  • 53
    Chen X, Wang S, Wu N, Sood S, Wang P, Jin Z, Beer DG, Giordano TJ, Lin Y, Shih WC, Lubet RA, Yang CS. Overexpression of 5-lipoxygenase in rat and human esophageal adenocarcinoma and inhibitory effects of zileuton and celecoxib on carcinogenesis. Clin Cancer Res 2004; 10: 67039.
  • 54
    Li N, Sood S, Wang S, Fang M, Wang P, Sun Z, Yang CS, Chen X. Overexpression of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase 2 in hamster and human oral cancer and chemopreventive effects of zileuton and celecoxib. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11: 208996.
  • 55
    Rioux N, Castonguay A. Inhibitors of lipoxygenase: a new class of cancer chemopreventive agents. Carcinogenesis 1998; 19: 1393400.
  • 56
    Tong WG, Ding XZ, Witt RC, Adrian TE. Lipoxygenase inhibitors attenuate growth of human pancreatic cancer xenografts and induce apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Mol Cancer Ther 2002; 1: 92935.
  • 57
    Nathoo N, Barnett GH, Golubic M. The eicosanoid cascade: possible role in gliomas and meningiomas. J Clin Pathol 2004; 57: 613.
  • 58
    Ye YN, Wu WK, Shin VY, Bruce IC, Wong BC, Cho CH. Dual inhibition of 5-LOX and COX-2 suppresses colon cancer formation promoted by cigarette smoke. Carcinogenesis 2005; 26: 82734.
  • 59
    Rigas B, Goldman IS, Levine L. Altered eicosanoid levels in human colon cancer. J Lab Clin Med 1993; 122: 51823.
  • 60
    Sales KJ, Milne SA, Williams AR, Anderson RA, Jabbour HN. Expression, localization, and signaling of prostaglandin F2 α receptor in human endometrial adenocarcinoma: regulation of proliferation by activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 98693.
  • 61
    Furstenberger G, Marks F, Muller-Decker K. Cyclooxygenase-2 and skin carcinogenesis. Prog Exp Tumor Res 2003; 37: 7289.
  • 62
    Hansen-Petrik MB, McEntee MF, Jull B, Shi H, Zemel MB, Whelan J. Prostaglandin E(2) protects intestinal tumors from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced regression in Apc(Min/+) mice. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 4038.
  • 63
    Fischer SM, Furstenberger G, Marks F, Slaga TJ. Events associated with mouse skin tumor promotion with respect to arachidonic acid metabolism: a comparison between SENCAR and NMRI mice. Cancer Res 1987; 47: 31749.
  • 64
    Tegeder I, Pfeilschifter J, Geisslinger G. Cyclooxygenase-independent actions of cyclooxygenase inhibitors. FASEB J 2001; 15: 205772.
  • 65
    Baek SJ, Eling TE. Changes in gene expression contribute to cancer prevention by COX inhibitors. Prog Lipid Res 2006; 45: 116.
  • 66
    Brown JR, DuBois RN. COX-2: a molecular target for colorectal cancer prevention. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 284055.
  • 67
    Majima M, Amano H, Hayashi I. Prostanoid receptor signaling relevant to tumor growth and angiogenesis. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2003; 24: 5249.
  • 68
    Sung YM, He G, Fischer SM. Lack of expression of the EP2 but not EP3 receptor for prostaglandin E2 results in suppression of skin tumor development. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 930411.
  • 69
    Shoji Y, Takahashi M, Takasuka N, Niho N, Kitamura T, Sato H, Maruyama T, Sugimoto Y, Narumiya S, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K. Prostaglandin E receptor EP3 deficiency modifies tumor outcome in mouse two-stage skin carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 2005; 26: 211622.
  • 70
    Ding XZ, Talamonti MS, Bell RH,Jr, Adrian TE. A novel anti-pancreatic cancer agent, LY293111. Anticancer Drugs 2005; 16: 46773.
  • 71
    Thuillier P, Anchiraico GJ, Nickel KP, Maldve RE, Gimenez-Conti I, Muga SJ, Liu KL, Fischer SM, Belury MA. Activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α partially inhibit mouse skin tumor promotion. Mol Carcinog 2000; 29: 13442.
  • 72
    Subbarayan V, Xu XC, Kim J, Yang P, Hoque A, Sabichi AL, Llansa N, Mendoza G, Logothetis CJ, Newman RA, Lippman SM, Menter DG. Inverse relationship between 15-lipoxygenase-2 and PPAR-γ gene expression in normal epithelia compared with tumor epithelia. Neoplasia 2005; 7: 28093.
  • 73
    Wang D, Dubois RN. Prostaglandins and cancer. Gut 2006; 55: 11522.
  • 74
    Dannenberg AJ, Lippman SM, Mann JR, Subbaramaiah K, DuBois RN. Cyclooxygenase-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor: pharmacologic targets for chemoprevention. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 25466.
  • 75
    Wang SC, Lien HC, Xia W, Chen IF, Lo HW, Wang Z, Ali-Seyed M, Lee DF, Bartholomeusz G, Ou-Yang F, Giri DK, Hung MC. Binding at and transactivation of the COX-2 promoter by nuclear tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB-2. Cancer Cell 2004; 6: 25161.
  • 76
    Wang D, Buchanan FG, Wang H, Dey SK, DuBois RN. Prostaglandin E2 enhances intestinal adenoma growth via activation of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 18229.
  • 77
    Castellone MD, Teramoto H, Williams BO, Druey KM, Gutkind JS. Prostaglandin E2 promotes colon cancer cell growth through a Gs-axin-β-catenin signaling axis. Science 2005; 310: 150410.
  • 78
    Zhou J, Suzuki T, Kovacic A, Saito R, Miki Y, Ishida T, Moriya T, Simpson ER, Sasano H, Clyne CD. Interactions between prostaglandin E(2), liver receptor homologue-1, and aromatase in breast cancer. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 65763.
  • 79
    Jabbour HN, Sales KJ, Boddy SC, Anderson RA, Williams AR. A positive feedback loop that regulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin F2α synthesis via the F-series-prostanoid receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway. Endocrinology 2005; 146: 465764.
  • 80
    Avis IM, Jett M, Boyle T, Vos MD, Moody T, Treston AM, Martinez A, Mulshine JL. Growth control of lung cancer by interruption of 5-lipoxygenase-mediated growth factor signaling. J Clin Invest 1996; 97: 80613.
  • 81
    Ghosh J, Myers CE. Inhibition of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase triggers massive apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998; 95: 131827.
  • 82
    Ding XZ, Tong WG, Adrian TE. Multiple signal pathways are involved in the mitogenic effect of 5(S)-HETE in human pancreatic cancer. Oncology 2003; 65: 28594.
  • 83
    Tong WG, Ding XZ, Talamonti MS, Bell RH, Adrian TE. LTB4 stimulates growth of human pancreatic cancer cells via MAPK and PI-3 kinase pathways. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 335: 94956.
  • 84
    Tiano HF, Loftin CD, Akunda J, Lee CA, Spalding J, Sessoms A, Dunson DB, Rogan EG, Morham SG, Smart RC, Langenbach R. Deficiency of either cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or COX-2 alters epidermal differentiation and reduces mouse skin tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 3395401.
  • 85
    Wang D, Wang H, Shi Q, Katkuri S, Walhi W, Desvergne B, Das SK, Dey SK, DuBois RN. Prostaglandin E(2) promotes colorectal adenoma growth via transactivation of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ. Cancer Cell 2004; 6: 28595.
  • 86
    Holla VR, Mann JR, Shi Q, DuBois RN. Prostaglandin E2 regulates the nuclear receptor NR4A2 in colorectal cancer. J Biol Chem 2006; 281: 267682.
  • 87
    Liao Z, Milas L. COX-2 and its inhibition as a molecular target in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2004; 4: 54360.
  • 88
    Tong WG, Ding XZ, Adrian TE. The mechanisms of lipoxygenase inhibitor-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002; 296: 9428.
  • 89
    Ding XZ, Hennig R, Adrian TE. Lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase metabolism: new insights in treatment and chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer. Mol Cancer 2003; 2: 10.
  • 90
    Catalano A, Caprari P, Soddu S, Procopio A, Romano M. 5-Lipoxygenase regulates senescence-like growth arrest by promoting ROS-dependent p53 activation. EMBO J 2005; 24: 1709.
  • 91
    Howe LR, Chang SH, Tolle KC, Dillon R, Young LJ, Cardiff RD, Newman RA, Yang P, Thaler HT, Muller WJ, Hudis C, Brown AM, et al. HER2/neu-induced mammary tumorigenesis and angiogenesis are reduced in cyclooxygenase-2 knockout mice. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 101139.
  • 92
    Masferrer JL, Leahy KM, Koki AT, Zweifel BS, Settle SL, Woerner BM, Edwards DA, Flickinger AG, Moore RJ, Seibert K. Antiangiogenic and antitumor activities of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 130611.
  • 93
    Chang SH, Liu CH, Conway R, Han DK, Nithipatikom K, Trifan OC, Lane TF, Hla T. Role of prostaglandin E2-dependent angiogenic switch in cyclooxygenase 2-induced breast cancer progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004; 101: 5916.
  • 94
    Dormond O, Bezzi M, Mariotti A, Ruegg C. Prostaglandin E2 promotes integrin α Vβ 3-dependent endothelial cell adhesion, rac-activation, and spreading through cAMP/PKA-dependent signaling. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 4583846.
  • 95
    Salcedo R, Zhang X, Young HA, Michael N, Wasserman K, Ma WH, Martins-Green M, Murphy WJ, Oppenheim JJ. Angiogenic effects of prostaglandin E2 are mediated by up-regulation of CXCR4 on human microvascular endothelial cells. Blood 2003; 102: 196677.
  • 96
    Sales KJ, List T, Boddy SC, Williams AR, Anderson RA, Naor Z, Jabbour HN. A novel angiogenic role for prostaglandin F2α-FP receptor interaction in human endometrial adenocarcinomas. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 770716.
  • 97
    Nie D, Tang K, Diglio C, Honn KV. Eicosanoid regulation of angiogenesis: role of endothelial arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase. Blood 2000; 95: 230411.
  • 98
    Ye YN, Liu ES, Shin VY, Wu WK, Cho CH. Contributory role of 5-lipoxygenase and its association with angiogenesis in the promotion of inflammation-associated colonic tumorigenesis by cigarette smoking. Toxicology 2004; 203: 17988.
  • 99
    Harats D, Ben-Shushan D, Cohen H, Gonen A, Barshack I, Goldberg I, Greenberger S, Hodish I, Harari A, Varda-Bloom N, Levanon K, Grossman E et al. Inhibition of carcinogenesis in transgenic mouse models over-expressing 15-lipoxygenase in the vascular wall under the control of murine preproendothelin-1 promoter. Cancer Lett 2005; 229: 12734.
  • 100
    Tsujii M, Kawano S, DuBois RN. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human colon cancer cells increases metastatic potential. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94: 333640.
  • 101
    Dohadwala M, Batra RK, Luo J, Lin Y, Krysan K, Pold M, Sharma S, Dubinett SM. Autocrine/paracrine prostaglandin E2 production by non-small cell lung cancer cells regulates matrix metalloproteinase-2 and CD44 in cyclooxygenase-2-dependent invasion. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 5082833.
  • 102
    Kakiuchi Y, Tsuji S, Tsujii M, Murata H, Kawai N, Yasumaru M, Kimura A, Komori M, Irie T, Miyoshi E, Sasaki Y, Hayashi N, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 activity altered the cell-surface carbohydrate antigens on colon cancer cells and enhanced liver metastasis. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 156772.
  • 103
    Buchanan FG, Wang D, Bargiacchi F, DuBois RN. Prostaglandin E2 regulates cell migration via the intracellular activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 354517.
  • 104
    Yao M, Kargman S, Lam EC, Kelly CR, Zheng Y, Luk P, Kwong E, Evans JF, Wolfe MM. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 by rofecoxib attenuates the growth and metastatic potential of colorectal carcinoma in mice. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 58692.
  • 105
    Honn KV, Tang DG, Gao X, Butovich IA, Liu B, Timar J, Hagmann W. 12-Lipoxygenases and 12(S)-HETE: role in cancer metastasis. Cancer Metastasis Rev 1994; 13: 36596.
  • 106
    Harris SG, Padilla J, Koumas L, Ray D, Phipps RP. Prostaglandins as modulators of immunity. Trends Immunol 2002; 23: 14450.
  • 107
    Marnett LJ. Prostaglandin synthase-mediated metabolism of carcinogens and a potential role for peroxyl radicals as reactive intermediates. Environ Health Perspect 1990; 88: 512.
  • 108
    Marnett LJ. Oxy radicals, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Toxicology 2002; 181/182: 21922.