• 1
    Hakama M, Pukkala E, Söderman B, Day N. Implementation of screening as a public health policy: issues in design and evaluation. J Med Screen 1999; 6: 20916.
  • 2
    Tabar L, Fagerberg CJ, Gad A, Baldetorp L, Holmberg LH, Grontoft O, Ljungquist U, Lundstrom B, Manson JC, Eklund G. Reduction in mortality from breast cancer after mass screening with mammography. Randomised trial from the Breast Cancer Screening Working Group of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Lancet 1985; 1: 82932.
  • 3
    Törnberg S, Carstensen J, Hakulinen T, Lenner P, Hatschek T, Lundgren B. Evaluation of the effect on breast cancer mortality of population based mammography screening programmes. J Med Screen 1994; 1: 1847.
  • 4
    Fracheboud J, Otto SJ, van Dijck JA, Broeders MJ, Verbeek AL, de Koning HJ, National Evaluation Team for Breast cancer screening (NEBT). Decreased rates of advanced breast cancer due to mammography screening in The Netherlands. Br J Cancer 2004; 91: 8617.
  • 5
    Sant M, Capocaccia R, Coleman MP, Berrino F, Gatta G, Micheli A, Verdecchia A, Faivre J, Hakulinen T, Coebergh JWW, Martinez-Garcia C, Forman D et al. Cancer survival increases in Europe, but international differences remain wide. Eur J Cancer 2001; 37: 165967.
  • 6
    Che KC, Tarone RE, Kessler LG, Ries LA, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Edwards BK. Recent trends in U.S. breast cancer incidence, survival, and mortality rates. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996; 88: 15719.
  • 7
    Coleman MP. Trends in breast cancer incidence, survival, and mortality. Lancet 2000; 356: 5902.
  • 8
    Berrino F, Sant M, Verdecchia A, Capocaccia R, Hakulinen T, Estève J. Survival of cancer patients in Europe: the EUROCARE study. Lyon: IARC Scientific Publications No. 132, 1995.
  • 9
    Berrino F, Capocaccia R, Estève J, Gatta G, Hakulinen T, Micheli A, Sant M, Verdecchia A. Survival of cancer patients in Europe: the EUROCARE-2 study. Lyon: IARC Scientific Publications No. 151, 1999.
  • 10
    Berrino F, Capocaccia R, Coleman MP, Estève J, Gatta G, Hakulinen T, Micheli A, Sant M, Verdecchia A. Survival of Cancer Patients in Europe: the EUROCARE-3 Study. Ann Oncol 2003, 14 Suppl 5, v9-v155.
  • 11
    WHO. Mortality. World Health Organization, 2005. Available at
  • 12
    Verdecchia A, Capocaccia R, Egidi V, Golini A. A method for the estimation of chronic disease morbidity and trends from mortality data. Stat Med 1989; 8: 20116.
  • 13
    Hakulinen T, Abeywickrama KH. A computer program package for relative survival analysis. Comput Programs Biomed 1985; 19: 197207.
  • 14
    European Incidence Database V2.3. ICD-10 dictionary. European Network of Cancer Registry, EUROCIM version 4.0. Lyon: IARC, 2001.
  • 15
    Levi F, Lucchini F, Negri E, Boyle P, La Vecchia C. Cancer mortality in Europe, 1995–1999, and an overview of trends since 1960. Int J Cancer 2004; 110: 15569.
  • 16
    Pisani P, Forman D. Declining mortality from breast cancer in Yorkshire, 1983–1998: extent and causes. Br J Cancer 2004; 90: 6526.
  • 17
    Botha JL, Bray F, Sankila R, Parkin DM. Breast cancer incidence and mortality trends in 16 European countries. Eur J Cancer 2003; 39: 171829.
  • 18
    Quinn M, Allen E. Changes in incidence of and mortality from breast cancer in England and Wales since introduction of screening. United Kingdom Association of Cancer Registries. BMJ 1995; 311: 13915.
  • 19
    Blanks RG, Moss SM, McGahan CE, Quinn MJ, Babb PJ. Effect of NHS breast screening programme on mortality from breast cancer in England and Wales, 1990–1998: comparison of observed with predicted mortality. BMJ 2000; 321: 6659.
  • 20
    Jonsson H, Johansson R, Lenner P. Increased incidence of invasive breast cancer after the introduction of service screening with mammography in Sweden. Int J Cancer 2005; 117: 8427.
  • 21
    Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG). Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet 2005; 365: 1687717.
  • 22
    Jatoi I, Miller AB. Why is breast-cancer mortality declining? Lancet Oncol 2003; 4: 2514.
  • 23
    Allgar VL, Neal RD. Delays in the diagnosis of six cancers: analysis of data from the National Survey of NHS Patients: Cancer. Br J Cancer 2005; 92: 195970.
  • 24
    Department Of Health. The NHS Cancer Plan. DOH, London, 2000. Available at
  • 25
    Quinn M, Babb P, Brock A, Kirby L, Jones J. Cancer trends in England and Wales 1950–1999. Studies on medical and population subjects No. 66. London: The Stationery Office, 2001.
  • 26
    Crocetti E, Capocaccia R, Casella C, Guzzinati S, Ferretti S, Rosso S, Sacchettini C, Spitale A, Stracci F, Tumino R. Population-based incidence and mortality cancer trends (1986–1997) from the network of Italian cancer registries. Eur J Cancer Prev 2004; 13: 28795.
  • 27
    Negri E, La Vecchia C, Decarli A. Cancer mortality in Italy, 1997: quantifying the fall in rates in women and men. Tumori 2001; 87: 2908.
  • 28
    Remontet L, Esteve J, Bouvier AM, Grosclaude P, Launoy G, Menegoz F, Exbrayat C, Tretare B, Carli PM, Guizard AV, Troussard X, Bercelli P, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality in France over the period 1978–2000. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2003; 51: 330.
  • 29
    Shapiro S, Coleman EA, Broeders M, Codd M, de Koning H, Fracheboud J, Moss S, Paci E, Stachenko S, Ballard-Barbash R. Breast cancer screening programmes in 22 countries: current policies, administration and guidelines. International Breast Cancer Screening Network (IBSN) and the European Network of Pilot Projects for Breast Cancer Screening. Int J Epidemiol 1998; 27: 73542.
  • 30
    Tyczynski JE, Plesko I, Aareleid T, Primic-Zakelj M, Dalmas M, Kurtinaitis J, Stengrevics A, Parkin DM. Breast cancer mortality patterns and time trends in 10 new EU member states: mortality declining in young women, but still increasing in the elderly. Int J Cancer 2004; 112: 105664.