• 1
    Khan MA,Han M,Partin AW,Epstein JI,Walsh PC. Long-term cancer control of radical prostatectomy in men younger than 50 years of age: an update. Urology 2003; 62: 8691.
  • 2
    Pantel K,Brakenhoff RH. Dissecting the metastatic cascade. Nat Rev Cancer 2004; 4: 44856.
  • 3
    Solakoglu O,Maierhofer C,Lahr G,Breit E,Scheunemann P,Heumos I,Pichlmeier U,Schlimok G,Oberneder R,Kollermann MW,Kollermann J,Speicher MR, et al. Heterogeneous proliferative potential of occult metastatic cells in bone marrow of patients with solid epithelial tumours. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99: 224651.
  • 4
    Zippelius A,Lutterbuse R,Riethmuller G,Pantel K. Analytical variables of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based detection of disseminated prostate cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6: 274150.
  • 5
    Ellis WJ,Pfitzenmaier J,Colli J,Arfman E,Lange PH,Vessella RL. Detection and isolation of prostate cancer cells from peripheral blood and bone marrow. Urology 2003; 61: 27781.
  • 6
    Weckermann D,Muller P,Wawroschek F,Krawczak G,Riethmuller G,Schlimok G. Micrometastases of bone marrow in localized prostate cancer: correlation with established risk factors. J Clin Oncol 1999; 17: 343843.
  • 7
    Pantel K,Enzmann T,Kollermann J,Caprano J,Riethmuller G,Kollermann MW. Immunocytochemical monitoring of micrometastatic disease: reduction of prostate cancer cells in bone marrow by androgen deprivation. Int J Cancer 1997; 71: 5215.
  • 8
    Kollermann J,Heseding B,Helpap B,Kollermann MW,Pantel K. Comparative immunocytochemical assessment of isolated carcinoma cells in lymph nodes and bone marrow of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Int J Cancer 1999; 84: 1459.
  • 9
    Elo JP,Visakorpi T. Molecular genetics of prostate cancer. Ann Med 2001; 33: 13041.
  • 10
    Saric T,Brkanac Z,Troyer DA,Padalecki SS,Sarosdy M,Williams K,Abadesco L,Leach RJ,O'Connell P. Genetic pattern of prostate cancer progression. Int J Cancer 1999; 81: 21924.
  • 11
    Nupponen NN,Visakorpi T. Molecular cytogenetics of prostate cancer. Microsc Res Tech 2000; 51: 45663.
  • 12
    Yano S,Matsuyama H,Matsuda K,Matsumoto H,Yoshihiro S,Naito K. Accuracy of an array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) technique in detecting DNA copy number aberrations: comparison with conventional CGH and loss of heterozygosity analysis in prostate cancer. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2004; 150: 1227.
  • 13
    Ichikawa T,Hosoki S,Suzuki H,Akakura K,Igarashi T,Furuya Y,Oshimura M,Rinker-Schaeffer CW,Nihei N,Barrett JC,Isaacs JT,Ito H. Mapping of metastasis suppressor genes for prostate cancer by microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. Asian J Androl 2000; 2: 16771.
  • 14
    von Knobloch R,Konrad L,Barth PJ,Brandt H,Wille S,Heidenreich A,Moll R,Hofmann R. Genetic pathways and new progression markers for prostate cancer suggested by microsatellite allelotyping. Clin Cancer Res 2004; 10: 106473.
  • 15
    Schwarzenbach H,Müler V,Stahmann N,Pantel K. Detection and characterization of circulating microsatellite-DNA in blood of patients with breast cancer. Circulating nucleic acids in plasma/serum proteomics III. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004; 1022: 2532.
  • 16
    Müller I,Urban K,Pantel K,Schwarzenbach H. Comparison of genetic alterations detected in circulating microsatellite-DNA in blood plasma samples of patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Circulating nucleic acids in plasma/serum and serum proteomics IV. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1075: 2229.
  • 17
    Silva JM,Silva J,Sanchez A,Garcia JM,Dominguez G,Provencio M,Sanfrutos L,Jareno E,Colas A,Espana P,Bonilla F. Tumor DNA in plasma at diagnosis of breast cancer patients is a valuable predictor of disease-free survival. Clin Cancer Res 2002; 8: 37616.
  • 18
    Chen X,Bonnefoi H,Diebold-Berger S,Lyautey J,Lederrey C,Faltin-Traub E,Stroun M,Anker P. Detecting tumor-related alterations in plasma or serum DNA of patients diagnosed with breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 1999; 5: 2297303.
  • 19
    Chen XQ,Stroun M,Magnenat JL,Nicod LP,Kurt AM,Lyautey J,Lederrey C,Anker P. Microsatellite alterations in plasma DNA of small cell lung cancer patients. Nat Med 1996; 2: 10335.
  • 20
    Anker P,Lefort F,Vasioukhin V,Lyautey J,Lederrey C,Chen XQ,Stroun M,Mulcahy HE,Farthing MJ. K-ras mutations are found in DNA extracted from the plasma of patients with colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 111420.
  • 21
    Goessl C,Heicappell R,Munker R,Anker P,Stroun M,Krause H,Muller M,Miller K. Microsatellite analysis of plasma DNA from patients with clear cell renal carcinoma. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 472832.
  • 22
    Nawroz H,Koch W,Anker P,Stroun M,Sidransky D. Microsatellite alterations in serum DNA of head and neck cancer patients. Nat Med 1996; 2: 10357.
  • 23
    Taback B,Fujiwara Y,Wang HJ,Foshag LJ,Morton DL,Hoon DS. Prognostic significance of circulating microsatellite markers in the plasma of melanoma patients. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 57236.
  • 24
    Anker P,Mulcahy H,Chen XQ,Stroun M. Detection of circulating tumour DNA in the blood (plasma/serum) of cancer patients. Cancer Metastasis Rev 1999; 18: 6573.
  • 25
    Bremnes RM,Sirera R,Camps C. Circulating tumour-derived DNA and RNA markers in blood: a tool for early detection, diagnostics, and follow-up? Lung Cancer 2005; 49: 112.
  • 26
    Wang Q,Larson PS,Schlechter BL,Zahid N,Finnemore E,de las Morenas A,Blanchard RA,Rosenberg CL. Loss of heterozygosity in serial plasma DNA samples during follow-up of women with breast cancer. Int J Cancer 2003; 106: 9239.
  • 27
    Stroun M,Anker P,Lyautey J,Lederrey C,Maurice PA. Isolation and characterization of DNA from plasma of cancer patients. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1987; 23: 70712.
  • 28
    Chun FKH,Müller I,Lange I,Friedrich M,Erbersdobler A,Karakiewicz PI,Graefen M,Pantel K,Huland H,Schwarzenbach H. Circulating tumour-associated plasma DNA represents an independent and informative predictor of prostate cancer. Br J Urol Int 2006; 98: 5448.
  • 29
    Boddy JL,Gal S,Malone PR,Harris AL,Wainscoat JS. Prospective study of quantitation of plasma DNA levels in the diagnosis of malignant versus benign prostate disease. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11: 13949.
  • 30
    Papadopoulou E,Davilas E,Sotiriou V,Koliopanos A,Aggelakis F,Dardoufas K,Agnanti NJ,Karydas I,Nasioulas G. Cell-free DNA and RNA in plasma as a new molecular marker for prostate cancer. Oncol Res 2004; 14: 43945.
  • 31
    Jung K,Stephan C,Lewandowski M,Klotzek S,Jung M,Kristiansen G,Lein M,Loening SA,Schnorr D. Increased cell-free DNA in plasma of patients with metastatic spread in prostate cancer. Cancer Lett 2004; 205: 17380.
  • 32
    Stroun M,Lyautey J,Lederrey C,Olson-Sand A,Anker P. About the possible origin and mechanism of circulating DNA apoptosis and active DNA release. Clin Chim Acta 2001; 313: 13942.
  • 33
    Jahr S,Hentze H,Englisch S,Hardt D,Fackelmayer FO,Hesch RD,Knippers R. DNA fragments in the blood plasma of cancer patients: quantitations and evidence for their origin from apoptotic and necrotic cells. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 165965.
  • 34
    Taback B,Giuliano AE,Hansen NM,Singer FR,Shu S,Hoon DS. Detection of tumor-specific genetic alterations in bone marrow from early-stage breast cancer patients. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 18847.
  • 35
    Dong JT. Chromosomal deletions and tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev 2001; 20: 17393.
  • 36
    Dong JT,Boyd JC,Frierson HF,Jr. Loss of heterozygosity at 13q14 and 13q21 in high grade, high stage prostate cancer. Prostate 2001; 49: 16671.
  • 37
    Jenkins R,Takahashi S,DeLacey K,Bergstralh E,Lieber M. Prognostic significance of allelic imbalance of chromosome arms 7q, 8p, 16q, and 18q in stage T3N0M0 prostate cancer. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1998; 21: 13143.
  • 38
    Braun S,Pantel K,Muller P,Janni W,Hepp F,Kentenich CR,Gastroph S,Wischnik A,Dimpfl T,Kindermann G,Riethmuller G,Schlimok G. Cytokeratin-positive cells in the bone marrow and survival of patients with stage I, II, or III breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 52533.
  • 39
    Dahiya R,Lee C,McCarville J,Hu W,Kaur G,Deng G. High frequency of genetic instability of microsatellites in human prostatic adenocarcinoma. Int J Cancer 1997; 72: 7627.
  • 40
    Bonkhoff H,Remberger K. Morphogenetic concepts of normal and abnormal growth in the human prostate. Virchows Arch 1998; 433: 195202.
  • 41
    Perinchery G,Bukurov N,Nakajima K,Chang J,Li L-C,Dahiya R. High frequency of deletion on chromosome 9p21 may harbour several tumor-suppressor genes in human prostate cancer. Int J Cancer 1999; 83: 6104.
  • 42
    Coulet F,Blons H,Cabelguenne A,Lecomte T,Laccourreye O,Brasnu D,Beaune P,Zucman J,Laurent-Puig P. Detection of plasma tumor DNA in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by microsatellite typing and p53 mutation analysis. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 70711.
  • 43
    Braun S,Vogl FD,Naume B,Janni W,Osborne MP,Coombes RC,Schlimok G,Diel IJ,Gerber B,Gebauer G,Pierga JY,Marth C, et al. A pooled analysis of bone marrow micrometastasis in breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 793802.
  • 44
    Pantel K,Müller V,Auer M,Nusser N,Harbeck N,Braun S. Detection and clinical implications of early systemic tumor cell dissemination in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2003; 9: 632634.
  • 45
    Stimpfl M,Schmid BC,Schiebel I,Tong D,Leodolter S,Obermair A,Zeillinger R. Expression of mucins and cytokeratins in ovarian cancer cell lines. Cancer Lett 1999; 145: 1334.
  • 46
    Kufer P,Zippelius A,Lutterbuse R,Mecklenburg I,Enzmann T,Montag A,Weckermann D,Passlick B,Prang N,Reichardt P,Dugas M,Kollermann MW, et al. Heterogeneous expression of MAGE-A genes in occult disseminated tumor cells: a novel multimarker reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of micrometastatic disease. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 25161.
  • 47
    Riesenberg R,Oberneder R,Kriegmair M,Epp M,Bitzer U,Hofstetter A,Braun S,Riethmuller G,Pantel K. Immunocytochemical double staining of cytokeratin and prostate specific antigen in individual prostatic tumour cells. Histochemistry 1993; 99: 616.
  • 48
    Zippelius A,Kufer P,Honold G,Kollermann MW,Oberneder R,Schlimok G,Riethmuller G,Pantel K. Limitations of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses for detection of micrometastatic epithelial cancer cells in bone marrow. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15: 27018.
  • 49
    Klein CA,Blankenstein TJ,Schmidt-Kittler O,Petronio M,Polzer B,Stoecklein NH,Riethmuller G. Genetic heterogeneity of single disseminated tumour cells in minimal residual cancer. Lancet 2002; 360: 6839.
  • 50
    Schmidt-Kittler O,Ragg T,Daskalakis A,Granzow M,Ahr A,Blankenstein TJ,Kaufmann M,Diebold J,Arnholdt H,Muller P,Bischoff J,Harich D, et al. From latent disseminated cells to overt metastasis: genetic analysis of systemic breast cancer progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003; 100: 773742.