SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Estimating the world cancer burden: Globocan 2000. Int J Cancer 2001; 94: 1536.
  • 2
    Chen CJ, Yu MW, Liaw YF. Epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1997; 12: S294S308.
  • 3
    Tangkijvanich P, Mahachai V, Suwangool P, Poovorawan Y. Gender difference in clinicopathologic features and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol 2004; 10: 154750.
  • 4
    Yu MW, Chen CJ. Hepatitis B and C viruses in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 1994; 17: 7191.
  • 5
    Lee CM, Lu SN, Changchien CS, Yeh CT, Hsu TT, Tang JH, Wang JH, Lin DY, Chen CL, Chen WJ. Age, gender, and local geographic variations of viral etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in a hyperendemic area for hepatitis B virus infection. Cancer 1999; 86: 114350.
  • 6
    Shiratori Y, Shiina S, Imamura M, Shiratori Y, Shiina S, Imamura M, Kato N, Kanai F, Okudaira T, Teratani T, Tohgo G, Toda N, et al. Characteristic difference of hepatocellular carcinoma between hepatitis B- and C-viral infection in Japan. Hepatology 1995; 22: 102733.
  • 7
    Kim CM, Koike K, Saito I, Miyamura T, Jay G. HBx gene of hepatitis B virus induces liver cancer in transgenic mice. Nature 1991; 351: 31720.
  • 8
    Mokrohisky ST, Ambruso DR, Hathaway WE. Fulminant hepatic neoplasia after androgen therapy. N Engl J Med 1977; 296: 14112.
  • 9
    Farrell GC, Joshua DE, Uren RF, Baird PJ, Perkins KW, Kronenberg H. Androgen-induced hepatoma. Lancet 1975; 1: 4302.
  • 10
    Vesselinovitch SD, Itze L, Mihailovich N, Rao KV. Modifying role of partial hepatectomy and gonadectomy in ethylnitrosourea-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Cancer Res 1980; 40: 153842.
  • 11
    Toh YC. Effect of neonatal castration on liver tumor induction by N-2-fluorenylacetamide in suckling BALB/c mice. Carcinogenesis 1981; 2: 121921.
  • 12
    Kemp CJ, Leary CN, Drinkwater NR. Promotion of murine hepatocarcinogenesis by testosterone is androgen receptor-dependent but not cell autonomous. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989; 86: 75059.
  • 13
    Yu MW, Cheng SW, Lin MW, Yang SY, Liaw YF, Chang HC, Hsiao TJ, Lin SM, Lee SD, Chen PJ, Liu CJ, Chen CJ. Androgen-receptor gene CAG repeats, plasma testosterone levels, and risk of hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 20238.
  • 14
    Yu MW, Yang YC, Yang SY, Cheng SW, Liaw YF, Lin SM, Chen CJ. Hormonal markers and hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a nested case-control study among men. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93: 164451.
  • 15
    Chang C, Saltzman A, Yeh S, Young W, Keller E, Lee HJ, Wang C, Mizokami A. Androgen receptor: an overview. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 1995; 5: 97125.
  • 16
    Mhatre AN, Trifiro MA, Kaufman M, Kazemi-Esfarjani P, Figlewicz D, Rouleau G, Pinsky L. Reduced transcriptional regulatory competence of the androgen receptor in X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Nat Genet 1993; 5: 1848.
  • 17
    Chamberlain NL, Driver ED, Miesfeld RL. The length and location of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the androgen receptor N-terminal domain affect transactivation function. Nucleic Acids Res 1994; 22: 31816.
  • 18
    Ding D, Xu L, Menon M, Reddy GP, Barrack ER. Effect of GGC (glycine) repeat length polymorphism in the human androgen receptor on androgen action. Prostate 2005; 62: 1339.
  • 19
    Ferro P, Catalano MG, Dell'Eva R, Fortunati N, Pfeffer U. The androgen receptor CAG repeat: a modifier of carcinogenesis? Mol Cell Endocrinol 2002; 193: 10920.
  • 20
    Gottlieb B, Beitel LK, Wu JH, Trifiro M. The androgen receptor gene mutations database (ARDB): 2004 update. Hum Mutat 2004; 23: 52733.
  • 21
    Stanford JL, Just JJ, Gibbs M, Wicklund KG, Neal CL, Blumenstein BA, Ostrander EA. Polymorphic repeats in the androgen receptor gene: molecular markers of prostate cancer risk. Cancer Res 1997; 57: 11948.
  • 22
    Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ, Krithivas K, Brown M, Dahl D, Brufsky A, Talcott J, Hennekens CH, Kantoff PW. The CAG repeat within the androgen receptor gene and its relationship to prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94: 33203.
  • 23
    Ingles SA, Ross RK, Yu MC, Irvine RA, Pera GL, Haile RW, Coetzee GA. Association of prostate cancer risk with genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor and androgen receptor. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 89: 16670.
  • 24
    Hsing AW, Gao YT, Wu G, Wang X, Deng J, Chen YL, Sesterhenn IA, Mostofi FK, Benichou J, Chang C. Polymorphic CAG and GGN repeat lengths in the androgen receptor gene and prostate cancer risk: a population-based case–control study in China. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 51116.
  • 25
    Hakimi JM, Schoenberg MP, Rondinelli RH, Piantadosi S, Barrack ER. Androgen receptor variants with short glutamine or glycine repeats may identify unique subpopulations of men with prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 1997; 3: 1599608.
  • 26
    Sadi MV, Walsh PC, Barrack ER. Immunohistochemical study of androgen receptors in metastatic prostate cancer. Comparison of receptor content and response to hormonal therapy. Cancer 1991; 67: 305764.
  • 27
    Craft N, Shostak Y, Carey M, Sawyers CL. A mechanism for hormone-independent prostate cancer through modulation of androgen receptor signaling by the HER-2/neu tyrosine kinase. Nat Med 1999; 5: 2805.
  • 28
    Culig Z, Hobisch A, Cronauer MV, Radmayr C, Trapman J, Hittmair A, Bartsch G, Klocker H. Androgen receptor activation in prostatic tumor cell lines by insulin-like growth factor-I, keratinocyte growth factor, and epidermal growth factor. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 54748.
  • 29
    Hobisch A, Eder IE, Putz T, Horninger W, Bartsch G, Klocker H, Culig Z. Interleukin-6 regulates prostate-specific protein expression in prostate carcinoma cells by activation of the androgen receptor. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 46405.
  • 30
    Veldscholte J, Ris-Stalpers C, Kuiper GG, Rooij HC, Trapman J, Mulder E. A mutation in the ligand binding domain of the androgen receptor of human LNCaP cells affects steroid binding characteristics and response to anti-androgens. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1990; 173: 53440.
  • 31
    Marcelli M, Ittmann M, Mariani S, Sutherland R, Nigam R, Murthy L, Zhao Y, DiConcini D, Puxeddu E, Esen A, Eastham J, Weigel NL, et al. Androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancer. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 9449.
  • 32
    Thompson J, Hyytinen ER, Haapala K, Rantala I, Helin HJ, Janne OA, Palvimo JJ, Koivisto PA. Androgen receptor mutations in high-grade prostate cancer before hormonal therapy. Lab Invest 2003; 83: 170913.
  • 33
    Haapala K, Hyytinen ER, Roiha M, Laurila M, Rantala I, Helin HJ, Koivisto PA. Androgen receptor alterations in prostate cancer relapsed during a combined androgen blockade by orchiectomy and bicalutamide. Lab Invest 2001; 81: 164751.
  • 34
    Nagasue N, Ito A, Yukaya H, Ogawa Y. Androgen receptors in hepatocellular carcinoma and surrounding parenchyma. Gastroenterology 1985; 89: 6437.
  • 35
    Eagon PK, Francavilla A, DiLeo A, Elm MS, Gennari L, Mazzaferro V, Colella G, Van Thiel DH, Strazl TE. Quantitation of estrogen and androgen receptors in hepatocellular carcinoma and adjacent normal human liver. Dig Dis Sci 1991; 36: 13038.
  • 36
    Yeh SH, Chen PJ, Shau WY, Chen YW, Lee PH, Chen JT, Chen DS. Chromosomal allelic imbalance evolving from liver cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology 2001; 121: 699709.
  • 37
    International Working Party. Terminology of nodular hepatocellular lesions. International Working Party. Hepatology 1995; 22: 98393.
  • 38
    Yeh SH, Chang CF, Shau WY, Chen YW, Hsu HC, Lee PH, Chen DS, Chen PJ. Dominance of functional androgen receptor allele with longer CAG repeat in hepatitis B virus-related female hepatocarcinogenesis. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 434651.
  • 39
    Yeh SH, Lin MW, Lu SF, Wu DC, Tsai SF, Tsai CY, Lai MF, Hsu HC, Chen DS, Chen PJ. Allelic loss of chromosome 4q21 approximately 23 associates with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocarcinogenesis and elevated α-fetoprotein. Hepatology 2004; 40: 84754.
  • 40
    Boland CR, Thibodeau SN, Hamilton SR, Sidransky D, Eshleman JR, Burt RW, Meltzer SJ, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Fodde R, Ranzani GN, Srivastava S. A National Cancer Institute Workshop on Microsatellite Instability for cancer detection and familial predisposition: development of international criteria for the determination of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 524857.
  • 41
    Sood AK, Holmes R, Hendrix MJ, Buller RE. Application of the National Cancer Institute international criteria for determination of microsatellite instability in ovarian cancer. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 43714.
  • 42
    Jiricny J. Replication errors: cha(lle)nging the genome. EMBO J 1998; 17: 642736.
  • 43
    Ferro P, Catalano MG, Raineri M, Reato G, dell'Eva R, Risio MM, Foa R, Fortunati N, Pfeffer U. Somatic alterations of the androgen receptor CAG repeat in human colon cancer delineate a novel mutation pathway independent of microsatellite instability. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2000; 123: 3540.
  • 44
    Schoenberg MP, Hakimi JM, Wang S, Bova GS, Epstein JI, Fischbeck KH, Isaacs WB, Walsh PC, Barrack ER. Microsatellite mutation (CAG24–>18) in the androgen receptor gene in human prostate cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994; 198: 7480.
  • 45
    Wallen MJ, Linja M, Kaartinen K, Schleutker J, Visakorpi T. Androgen receptor gene mutations in hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Pathol 1999; 189: 55963.
  • 46
    Tsujimoto Y, Takakuwa T, Takayama H, Nishimura K, Okuyama A, Aozasa K, Nonomura N. In situ shortening of CAG repeat length within the androgen receptor gene in prostatic cancer and its possible precursors. Prostate 2004; 58: 28390.
  • 47
    Edwards SM, Badzioch MD, Minter R, Hamoudi R, Collins N, Ardern-Jones A, Dowe A, Osborne S, Kelly J, Shearer R, Easton DF, Saunders GF, et al. Androgen receptor polymorphisms: association with prostate cancer risk, relapse and overall survival. Int J Cancer 1999; 84: 45865.
  • 48
    Piao Z, Kim H, Malkhosyan S, Park C. Frequent chromosomal instability but no microsatellite instability in hepatocellular carcinomas. Int J Oncol 2000; 17: 50712.
  • 49
    Kondo Y, Kanai Y, Sakamoto M, Mizokami M, Ueda R, Hirohashi S. Genetic instability and aberrant DNA methylation in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis—a comprehensive study of loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability at 39 loci and DNA hypermethylation on 8 CpG islands in microdissected specimens from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 2000; 32: 9709.
  • 50
    Yu MW, Yang YC, Yang SY, Chang HC, Liaw YF, Lin SM, Liu CJ, Lee SD, Lin CL, Chen PJ, Lin SC, Chen CJ. Androgen receptor exon 1 CAG repeat length and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in women. Hepatology 2002; 36: 15663.