• 1
    Bernstein L. Epidemiology of endocrine-related risk factors for breast cancer. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2002; 7: 315.
  • 2
    Tworoger SS,Sluss P,Hankinson SE. Association between plasma prolactin concentrations and risk of breast cancer among predominately premenopausal women. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 247682.
  • 3
    Tworoger SS,Eliassen AH,Rosner B,Sluss P,Hankinson SE. Plasma prolactin concentrations and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Res 2004; 64: 681419.
  • 4
    Kabuto M,Akiba S,Stevens RG,Neriishi K,Land CE. A prospective study of estradiol and breast cancer in Japanese women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000; 9: 5759.
  • 5
    Wang DY,De Stavola BL,Bulbrook RD,Allen DS,Kwa HG,Fentiman IS,Hayward JL,Millis RR. Relationship of blood prolactin levels and the risk of subsequent breast cancer. Int J Epidemiol 1992; 21: 21421.
  • 6
    Manjer J,Johansson R,Berglund G,Janzon L,Kaaks R,Agren A,Lenner P. Postmenopausal breast cancer risk in relation to sex steroid hormones, prolactin and SHBG (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control 2003; 14: 599607.
  • 7
    Clevenger CV,Furth PA,Hankinson SE,Schuler LA. The role of prolactin in mammary carcinoma. Endocr Rev 2003; 24: 127.
  • 8
    Freeman ME,Kanyicska B,Lerant A,Nagy G. Prolactin: structure, function, and regulation of secretion. Physiol Rev 2000; 80: 1523631.
  • 9
    Ingram DM,Nottage EM,Roberts AN. Prolactin and breast cancer risk. Med J Aust 1990; 153: 46973.
  • 10
    Love RR,Rose DR,Surawicz TS,Newcomb PA. Prolactin and growth hormone levels in premenopausal women with breast cancer and healthy women with a strong family history of breast cancer. Cancer 1991; 68: 14015.
  • 11
    Musey VC,Collins DC,Musey PI,Martino-Saltzman D,Preedy JR. Long-term effect of a first pregnancy on the secretion of prolactin. N Engl J Med 1987; 316: 22934.
  • 12
    Wang DY,de Stavola BL,Bulbrook RD,Allen DS,Kwa HG,Verstraeten AA,Moore JW,Fentiman IS,Chaudary M,Hayward JL, Gravelle IH. The relationship between blood prolactin levels and risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1987; 23: 15418.
  • 13
    Yu MC,Gerkins VR,Henderson BE,Brown JB,Pike MC. Elevated levels of prolactin in nulliparous women. Br J Cancer 1981; 43: 82631.
  • 14
    Wang DY,de Stavola BL,Bulbrook RD,Allen DS,Kwa HG,Verstraeten AA,Moore JW,Fentiman IS,Hayward JL,Gravelle IH. The permanent effect of reproductive events on blood prolactin levels and its relation to breast cancer risk: a population study of postmenopausal women. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1988; 24: 122531.
  • 15
    Apter D,Reinila M,Vihko R. Some endocrine characteristics of early menarche, a risk factor for breast cancer, are preserved into adulthood. Int J Cancer 1989; 44: 7837.
  • 16
    Hankinson SE,Colditz GA,Hunter DJ,Manson JE,Willett WC,Stampfer MJ,Longcope C,Speizer FE. Reproductive factors and family history of breast cancer in relation to plasma estrogen and prolactin levels in postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1995; 6: 21724.
  • 17
    Hankinson SE,Willett WC,Manson JE,Hunter DJ,Colditz GA,Stampfer MJ,Longcope C,Speizer FE. Alcohol, height, and adiposity in relation to estrogen and prolactin levels in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995; 87: 1297302.
  • 18
    Hankinson SE,London SJ,Chute CG,Barbieri RL,Jones L,Kaplan LA,Sacks FM,Stampfer MJ. Effect of transport conditions on the stability of biochemical markers in blood. Clin Chem 1989; 35: 231316.
  • 19
    Hankinson SE,Manson JE,Spiegelman D,Willett WC,Longcope C,Speizer FE. Reproducibility of plasma hormone levels in postmenopausal women over a 2–3-year period. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1995; 4: 64954.
  • 20
    Missmer SA,Spiegelman D,Bertone-Johnson ER,Barbieri RL,Pollak MN,Hankinson SE. Reproducibility of plasma hormone and growth factor levels among premenopausal women over a 2–3 year period. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15: 9728.
  • 21
    Fujimoto VY,Clifton DK,Cohen NL,Soules MR. Variability of serum prolactin and progesterone levels in normal women: the relevance of single hormone measurements in the clinical setting. Obstet Gynecol 1990; 76: 718.
  • 22
    Rosner B. Percentage points for a generalized ESD many-outlier procedure. Technometrics 1983; 25: 16572.
  • 23
    Strauss JF,Barbieri RL. Yen and Jaffe's reproductive endocrinology, 5th edn. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2004.
  • 24
    Ishizuka B,Quigley ME,Yen SS. Pituitary hormone release in response to food ingestion: evidence for neuroendocrine signals from gut to brain. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983; 57: 111116.
  • 25
    Espinosa de los Monteros A,Cornejo J,Parra A. Differential prolactin response to oral metoclopramide in nulliparous versus parous women throughout the menstrual cycle. Fertil Steril 1991; 55: 8859.
  • 26
    Byrnes EM,Bridges RS. Lactation reduces prolactin levels in reproductively experienced female rats. Horm Behav 2005; 48: 27882.
  • 27
    Bridges RS,Byrnes EM. Reproductive experience reduces circulating 17β-estradiol and prolactin levels during proestrus and alters estrogen sensitivity in female rats. Endocrinology 2006; 147: 257582.
  • 28
    Colditz GA,Rosner B. Cumulative risk of breast cancer to age 70 years according to risk factor status: data from the Nurses' Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 152: 95064.
  • 29
    Brisken C,Kaur S,Chavarria TE,Binart N,Sutherland RL,Weinberg RA,Kelly PA,Ormandy CJ. Prolactin controls mammary gland development via direct and indirect mechanisms. Dev Biol 1999; 210: 96106.
  • 30
    London SJ,Connolly JL,Schnitt SJ,Colditz GA. A prospective study of benign breast disease and the risk of breast cancer. JAMA 1992; 267: 9414.
  • 31
    Carter CL,Corle DK,Micozzi MS,Schatzkin A,Taylor PR. A prospective study of the development of breast cancer in 16,692 women with benign breast disease. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 128: 46777.
  • 32
    Clevenger CV,Chang WP,Ngo W,Pasha TL,Montone KT,Tomaszewski JE. Expression of prolactin and prolactin receptor in human breast carcinoma. Evidence for an autocrine/paracrine loop. Am J Pathol 1995; 146: 695705.
  • 33
    Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58,209 women with breast cancer and 101,986 women without the disease. Lancet 2001;358: 138999.
  • 34
    Fishman J,Fukushima D,O'Connor J,Rosenfeld RS,Lynch HT,Lynch JF,Guirgis H,Maloney K. Plasma hormone profiles of young women at risk for familial breast cancer. Cancer Res 1978; 38: 400611.
  • 35
    Levin PA,Malarkey WB. Daughters of women with breast cancer have elevated mean 24-hour prolactin (PRL) levels and a partial resistance of PRL to dopamine suppression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1981; 53: 17983.
  • 36
    Haro LS,Lee DW,Singh RN,Bee G,Markoff E,Lewis UJ. Glycosylated human prolactin: alterations in glycosylation pattern modify affinity for lactogen receptor and values in prolactin radioimmunoassay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990; 71: 37983.