In the recent 10 years breast cancer treatments' scenario is radically changed. Extraordinary new surgical approaches give more and more conservative solutions both for the breast and especially for the axilla avoiding dissection in more than 80% of early cases. Instrumental early diagnosis and clinical prediction are now able to identify very initial cases often in premalignant stage. Technology arrived in the operating theatre for the intraoperative radiotherapy treatments giving to the patients the better quality of life with the help also of the plastic surgeons. There are still near horizons to reach: modern neo-adjuvant and adjuvant treatments are going quickly from the laboratory to patient's bed. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.