SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Clinton SK, Giovannucci E. Diet, nutrition, and prostate cancer. Annu Rev Nutr 1998; 18: 41340.
  • 2
    Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL. What causes prostate cancer? A brief summary of the epidemiology. Semin Cancer Biol 1998; 8: 26373.
  • 3
    Holmes MD, Pollak MN, Willett WC, Hankinson SE. Dietary correlates of plasma insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 concentrations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11: 85261.
  • 4
    Gao X, Lavalley MP, Tucker KL. Prospective studies of dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97: 176877.
  • 5
    Chan JM, Giovannucci E, Andersson SO, Yuen J, Adami HO, Wolk A. Dairy products, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, and risk of prostate cancer (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control 1998; 9: 55966.
  • 6
    Chan JM, Giovannucci EL. Dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and risk of prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev 2001; 23: 8792.
  • 7
    Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. A prospective study of calcium intake and incident and fatal prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15: 20310.
  • 8
    Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Wolk A, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 4427.
  • 9
    Kesse E, Bertrais S, Astorg P, Jaouen A, Arnault N, Galan P, Hercberg S. Dairy products, calcium and phosphorus intake, and the risk of prostate cancer: results of the French prospective SU.VI.MAX (Supplementation en Vitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants) study. Br J Nutr 2006; 95: 53945.
  • 10
    Le Marchand L, Kolonel LN, Wilkens LR, Myers BC, Hirohata T. Animal fat consumption and prostate cancer: a prospective study in Hawaii. Epidemiology 1994; 5: 27682.
  • 11
    Rodriguez C, McCullough ML, Mondul AM, Jacobs EJ, Fakhrabadi-Shokoohi D, Giovannucci EL, Thun MJ, Calle EE. Calcium, dairy products, and risk of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of United States men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12: 597603.
  • 12
    Snowdon DA, Phillips RL, Choi W. Diet, obesity, and risk of fatal prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1984; 120: 24450.
  • 13
    Tseng M, Breslow RA, Graubard BI, Ziegler RG. Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81: 114754.
  • 14
    Kristal AR, Cohen JH, Qu P, Stanford JL. Associations of energy, fat, calcium, and vitamin D with prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11: 71925.
  • 15
    Baron JA, Beach M, Wallace K, Grau MV, Sandler RS, Mandel JS, Heber D, Greenberg ER. Risk of prostate cancer in a randomized clinical trial of calcium supplementation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 5869.
  • 16
    Chan JM, Pietinen P, Virtanen M, Malila N, Tangrea J, Albanes D, Virtamo J. Diet and prostate cancer risk in a cohort of smokers, with a specific focus on calcium and phosphorus (Finland). Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11: 85967.
  • 17
    FAO. Milk consumption per country. Food balance sheets, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, 1998.
  • 18
    The effect of vitamin E and β carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. The α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 102935.
  • 19
    The α-tocopherol, β-carotene lung cancer prevention study: design, methods, participant characteristics, and compliance. The ATBC Cancer Prevention Study Group. Ann Epidemiol 1994; 4: 110.
  • 20
    Korhonen P, Malila N, Pukkala E, Teppo L, Albanes D, Virtamo J. The Finnish Cancer Registry as follow-up source of a large trial cohort-accuracy and delay. Acta Oncol 2002; 41: 3818.
  • 21
    Pietinen P, Hartman AM, Haapa E, Rasanen L, Haapakoski J, Palmgren J, Albanes D, Virtamo J, Huttunen JK. Reproducibility and validity of dietary assessment instruments, part I. a self-administered food use questionnaire with a portion size picture booklet. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 128: 65566.
  • 22
    Willet WC. Nutritional epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
  • 23
    Cox DR. Regression models and life-tables. J R Stat Soc Ser B: Stat Methodol 1972; 34: 187220.
  • 24
    Berndt SI, Carter HB, Landis PK, Tucker KL, Hsieh LJ, Metter EJ, Platz EA. Calcium intake and prostate cancer risk in a long-term aging study: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Urology 2002; 60: 111823.
  • 25
    Hayes RB, Ziegler RG, Gridley G, Swanson C, Greenberg RS, Swanson GM, Schoenberg JB, Silverman DT, Brown LM, Pottern LM, Liff J, Schwartz AG, et al. Dietary factors and risks for prostate cancer among blacks and whites in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999; 8: 2534.
  • 26
    Kristal AR, Stanford JL, Cohen JH, Wicklund K, Patterson RE. Vitamin and mineral supplement use is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999; 8: 88792.
  • 27
    Tavani A, Bertuccio P, Bosetti C, Talamini R, Negri E, Franceschi S, Montella M, La Vecchia C. Dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus and the risk of prostate cancer. Eur Urol 2005; 48: 2733.
  • 28
    Tavani A, Gallus S, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C. Calcium, dairy products, and the risk of prostate cancer. Prostate 2001; 48: 11821.
  • 29
    Vlajinac HD, Marinkovic JM, Ilic MD, Kocev NI. Diet and prostate cancer: a case-control study. Eur J Cancer 1997; 33: 1017.
  • 30
    Schuurman AG, van den Brandt PA, Dorant E, Goldbohm RA. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in The Netherlands Cohort Study. Br J Cancer 1999; 80: 110713.
  • 31
    De Stefani E, Fierro L, Barrios E, Ronco A. Tobacco, alcohol, diet and risk of prostate cancer. Tumori 1995; 81: 31520.
  • 32
    Jain MG, Hislop GT, Howe GR, Ghadirian P. Plant foods, antioxidants, and prostate cancer risk: findings from case-control studies in Canada. Nutr Cancer 1999; 34: 17384.
  • 33
    La Vecchia C, Negri E, D'Avanzo B, Franceschi S, Boyle P. Dairy products and the risk of prostatic cancer. Oncology 1991; 48: 40610.
  • 34
    Mettlin C, Selenskas S, Natarajan N, Huben R. β-carotene and animal fats and their relationship to prostate cancer risk. A case-control study. Cancer 1989; 64: 60512.
  • 35
    Talamini R, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C, Serraino D, Barra S, Negri E. Diet and prostatic cancer: a case-control study in northern Italy. Nutr Cancer 1992; 18: 27786.
  • 36
    Talamini R, La Vecchia C, Decarli A, Negri E, Franceschi S. Nutrition, social factors and prostatic cancer in a Northern Italian population. Br J Cancer 1986; 53: 81721.
  • 37
    Bosetti C, Tzonou A, Lagiou P, Negri E, Trichopoulos D, Hsieh CC. Fraction of prostate cancer incidence attributed to diet in Athens, Greece. Eur J Cancer Prev 2000; 9: 11923.
  • 38
    Deneo-Pellegrini H, De Stefani E, Ronco A, Mendilaharsu M. Foods, nutrients and prostate cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Br J Cancer 1999; 80: 5917.
  • 39
    Ewings P, Bowie C. A case-control study of cancer of the prostate in Somerset and east Devon. Br J Cancer 1996; 74: 6616.
  • 40
    Gronberg H, Damber L, Damber JE. Total food consumption and body mass index in relation to prostate cancer risk: a case-control study in Sweden with prospectively collected exposure data. J Urol 1996; 155: 96974.
  • 41
    Mishina T, Watanabe H, Araki H, Nakao M. Epidemiological study of prostatic cancer by matched-pair analysis. Prostate 1985; 6: 42336.
  • 42
    Tzonou A, Signorello LB, Lagiou P, Wuu J, Trichopoulos D, Trichopoulou A. Diet and cancer of the prostate: a case-control study in Greece. Int J Cancer 1999; 80: 7048.
  • 43
    Hsing AW, McLaughlin JK, Schuman LM, Bjelke E, Gridley G, Wacholder S, Chien HT, Blot WJ. Diet, tobacco use, and fatal prostate cancer: results from the Lutheran Brotherhood Cohort Study. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 683640.
  • 44
    Michaud DS, Augustsson K, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Willet WC, Giovannucci E. A prospective study on intake of animal products and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 2001; 12: 55767.
  • 45
    Mills PK, Beeson WL, Phillips RL, Fraser GE. Cohort study of diet, lifestyle, and prostate cancer in Adventist men. Cancer 1989; 64: 598604.
  • 46
    Severson RK, Nomura AM, Grove JS, Stemmermann GN. A prospective study of demographics, diet, and prostate cancer among men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii. Cancer Res 1989; 49: 185760.
  • 47
    Thompson MM, Garland C, Barrett-Connor E, Khaw KT, Friedlander NJ, Wingard DL. Heart disease risk factors, diabetes, and prostatic cancer in an adult community. Am J Epidemiol 1989; 129: 5117.
  • 48
    Veierod MB, Laake P, Thelle DS. Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate cancer: a prospective study of 25,708 Norwegian men. Int J Cancer 1997; 73: 6348.
  • 49
    Qin LQ, Xu JY, Wang PY, Kaneko T, Hoshi K, Sato A. Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer: meta-analysis of case-control studies. Nutr Cancer 2004; 48: 227.
  • 50
    Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Rimm EB, Hollis BW, Fuchs CS, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Prospective study of predictors of vitamin D status and cancer incidence and mortality in men. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006; 98: 4519.
  • 51
    Vieth R. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69: 84256.
  • 52
    Chen TC, Holick MF, Lokeshwar BL, Burnstein KL, Schwartz GG. Evaluation of vitamin D analogs as therapeutic agents for prostate cancer. Recent Results Cancer Res 2003; 164: 27388.
  • 53
    Giovannucci E. The epidemiology of vitamin D and cancer incidence and mortality: a review (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2005; 16: 8395.
  • 54
    Schwartz GG. Vitamin D and the epidemiology of prostate cancer. Semin Dial 2005; 18: 27689.
  • 55
    Hedlund TE, Moffatt KA, Miller GJ. Stable expression of the nuclear vitamin D receptor in the human prostatic carcinoma cell line JCA-1: evidence that the antiproliferative effects of 1 α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are mediated exclusively through the genomic signaling pathway. Endocrinology 1996; 137: 155461.
  • 56
    Platz EA, De Marzo AM, Giovannucci E. Prostate cancer association studies: pitfalls and solutions to cancer misclassification in the PSA era. J Cell Biochem 2004; 91: 55371.
  • 57
    Jorde R, Saleh F, Figenschau Y, Kamycheva E, Haug E, Sundsfjord J. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in smokers and non-smokers. The fifth Tromso study. Eur J Endocrinol 2005; 152: 3945.
  • 58
    Dickinson HO, Nicolson DJ, Cook JV, Campbell F, Beyer FR, Ford GA, Mason J. Calcium supplementation for the management of primary hypertension in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 19: CD004639.
  • 59
    Flood A, Peters U, Chatterjee N, Lacey JV,Jr, Schairer C, Schatzkin A. Calcium from diet and supplements is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort of women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 12632.
  • 60
    Pereira MA, Jacobs DR,Jr, Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Kartashov AI, Ludwig DS. Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the CARDIA Study. JAMA 2002; 287: 20819.
  • 61
    Tucker KL. Does milk intake in childhood protect against later osteoporosis? Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77: 1011.
  • 62
    Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Blanchette P, Bonds DE, Brunner RL, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 66983.
  • 63
    Wactawski-Wende J, Kotchen JM, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Brunner RL, O'Sullivan MJ, Margolis KL, Ockene JK, Phillips L, Pottern L, Prentice RL, Robbins J, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 68496.
  • 64
    Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D and fluoride. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine National Academy of Sciences, 1999.