Fat and meat intake and prostate cancer risk: The multiethnic cohort study



Dietary fat and meat as potential risk factors for prostate cancer have been the focus of many epidemiologic investigations, and findings from recent studies in particular have been inconsistent. Therefore, we examined the association between these exposures and prostate cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. The analyses included 82,483 men in Hawaii and Los Angeles aged ≥45, who completed a detailed quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1993–1996. During the follow-up period of 8 years, a total of 4,404 incident cases, including 1,278 nonlocalized or high-grade cancer cases, were identified. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks of prostate cancer after adjustment for time on study, ethnicity, family history of prostate cancer, education, body mass index, smoking status and energy intake. Intake of different types of fat (total, saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated), n-6 fatty acid, cholesterol, various meats, and fats from meat showed no association with overall prostate cancer risk or with nonlocalized or high-grade prostate cancer. Furthermore, we found little evidence of any relation of fat and meat intake with prostate cancer risk within any of the 4 racial/ethnic groups (African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos and Whites). There was a suggestion of a protective effect of n-3 fatty acid intake that was limited to Latinos and Whites. However, overall, our findings from a large cohort study of ethnically diverse population give no indication that intake of fat and meat substantially affects prostate cancer risk. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.