• 1
    Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, Parkin DM. GLOBOCAN 2002: Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide (IARC Cancer Base No. 5(2.0)). Lyon: IARC Press, 2004.
  • 2
    Forastiere A, Koch W, Trotti A, Sidransky D. Head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 18901900.
  • 3
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks of chemicals to humans, vol. 38: Tobacco smoking. Lyon, France: IARC Press, 1986.
  • 4
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans, vol. 83: Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. Lyon, France: IARC Press, 2004.
  • 5
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Betel-quid and areca-nut chewing and some areca-nut derived nitrosamines. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 2004; 85: 1334.
  • 6
    Znaor A, Brennan P, Gajalakshmi V, Mathew A, Shanta V, Varghese C, Boffetta P. Independent and combined effects of tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol drinking on the risk of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal cancers in Indian men. Int J Cancer 2003; 105: 6816.
  • 7
    Boffetta P, Hashibe M. Alcohol and cancer. Lancet Oncol 2006; 7: 14956.
  • 8
    Corrao G, Bagnardi V, Zambon A, La Vecchia C. A meta-analysis of alcohol consumption and the risk of 15 diseases. Prev Med 2004; 38: 61319.
  • 9
    Bosetti C, Gallus S, Franceschi S, Levi F, Bertuzzi M, Negri E, Talamini R, La Vecchia C. Cancer of the larynx in non-smoking alcohol drinkers and in non-drinking tobacco smokers. Br J Cancer 2002; 87: 51618.
  • 10
    Fioretti F, Bosetti C, Tavani A, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C. Risk factors for oral and pharyngeal cancer in never smokers. Oral Oncol 1999; 35: 3758.
  • 11
    Chyou PH, Nomura AMY, Stemmermann GN. Alcohol, smoking and cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract––a prospective-study among Hawaii Japanese men. Int J Cancer 1995; 60: 61621.
  • 12
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Fruit and vegetables. In: VainioH, BianchiniF, eds. Lyon, France: IARC, 2003. IARC handbooks of cancer prevention, vol. 8.
  • 13
    Sanghvi LD, Rao KCM, Khanolkar VR. Smoking and chewing of tobacco in relation to cancer of the upper alimentary tract. Br Med J 1955; 1: 111114.
  • 14
    Shanta V, Krishnamurthi S. Further study in aetiology of carcinomas of upper alimentary tract. Br J Cancer 1963; 17: 823.
  • 15
    Boffetta P, Trichopoulos D. Cancer of the lung larynx and pleura. In: AdamiHO, HunterD, TrichopoulosD, eds. Text book of cancer epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. 24880.
  • 16
    Gupta PC, Ray CS. Smokeless tobacco and health in India and South Asia. Respirology 2003; 8: 41931.
  • 17
    Nair U, Bartsch H, Nair J. Alert for an epidemic of oral cancer due to use of the betel quid substitutes gutkha and pan masala: a review of agents and causative mechanisms. Mutagenesis 2004; 19: 25162.
  • 18
    Balaram P, Sridhar H, Rajkumar T, Vaccarella S, Herrero R, Nandakumar A, Ravichandran K, Ramdas K, Sankaranarayanan R, Gajalakshmi V, Munoz N, Franceschi S. Oral cancer in Southern India: the influence of smoking, drinking, paan-chewing and oral hygiene. Int J Cancer 2002; 98: 4405.
  • 19
    Lee KW, Kuo WR, Tsai SM, Wu DC, Wang WM, Fang FM, Chiang FY, Ho KY, Wang LF, Tai CF, Kao EL, Chou SH, et al. Different impact from betel quid, alcohol and cigarette: risk factors for pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer. Int J Cancer 2005; 117: 8316.
  • 20
    Sankaranarayanan R, Duffy SW, Nair MK, Padmakumary G, Day NE. Tobacco and alcohol as risk factors in cancer of the larynx in Kerala, India. Int J Cancer 1990; 45: 87982.
  • 21
    Rao DN, Desai PB, Ganesh B. Alcohol as an additional risk factor in laryngopharyngeal cancer in Mumbai––a case–control study. Cancer Detect Prev 1999; 23: 3744.
  • 22
    Connolly GN, Orleans CT, Blum A. Snuffing tobacco out of sport. Am J Public Health 1992; 82: 3513.
  • 23
    Connolly GN, Orleans CT, Kogan M. Use of smokeless tobacco in major-league baseball. N Engl J Med 1988; 318: 128185.
  • 24
    Boyle P, Ariyaratne MAY, Barrington R, Bartelink H, Bartsch G, Berns A, de Valeriola D, Dinshaw KA, Eggermont AMM, Gray N, Kakizoe T, Karki BS, et al. Tobacco: deadly in any form or disguise. Lancet 2006; 367: 171012.