SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    National Cancer Institute. Cancer Stat Facts: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Rockville, MD: NCI, 2006.
  • 2
    D'Amico AV, Whittington R, Malkowicz SB, Fondurulia J, Chen MH, Kaplan I, Beard CJ, Tomaszewski JE, Renshaw AA, Wein A, Coleman CN. Pretreatment nomogram for prostate-specific antigen recurrence after radical prostatectomy or external-beam radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 1999; 17: 16872.
  • 3
    Stone NN, Stock RG. Laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection in the staging of prostate cancer. Mt Sinai J Med 1999; 66: 2630.
  • 4
    Shah RB, Mehra R, Chinnaiyan AM, Shen R, Ghosh D, Zhou M, Macvicar GR, Varambally S, Harwood J, Bismar TA, Kim R, Rubin MA, et al. Androgen-independent prostate cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases: lessons from a rapid autopsy program. Cancer Res 2004; 64: 920916.
  • 5
    Pound CR, Partin AW, Eisenberger MA, Chan DW, Pearson JD, Walsh PC. Natural history of progression after PSA elevation following radical prostatectomy. JAMA 1999; 281: 15917.
  • 6
    Roehl KA, Han M, Ramos CG, Antenor JA, Catalona WJ. Cancer progression and survival rates following anatomical radical retropubic prostatectomy in 3,478 consecutive patients: long-term results. J Urol 2004; 172: 91014.
  • 7
    Hull GW, Rabbani F, Abbas F, Wheeler TM, Kattan MW, Scardino PT. Cancer control with radical prostatectomy alone in 1,000 consecutive patients. J Urol 2002; 167: 52834.
  • 8
    Cheng L, Zincke H, Blute ML, Bergstralh EJ, Scherer B, Bostwick DG. Risk of prostate carcinoma death in patients with lymph node metastasis. Cancer 2001; 91: 6673.
  • 9
    Skobe M, Hawighorst T, Jackson DG, Prevo R, Janes L, Velasco P, Riccardi L, Alitalo K, Claffey K, Detmar M. Induction of tumor lymphangiogenesis by VEGF-C promotes breast cancer metastasis. Nat Med 2001; 7: 1928.
  • 10
    Stacker SA, Caesar C, Baldwin ME, Thornton GE, Williams RA, Prevo R, Jackson DG, Nishikawa S, Kubo H, Achen MG. VEGF-D promotes the metastatic spread of tumor cells via the lymphatics. Nat Med 2001; 7: 18691.
  • 11
    Achen MG, McColl BK, Stacker SA. Focus on lymphangiogenesis in tumor metastasis. Cancer Cell 2005; 7: 1217.
  • 12
    Mandriota SJ, Jussila L, Jeltsch M, Compagni A, Baetens D, Prevo R, Banerji S, Huarte J, Montesano R, Jackson DG, Orci L, Alitalo K, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C-mediated lymphangiogenesis promotes tumour metastasis. Embo J 2001; 20: 67282.
  • 13
    Alitalo K, Carmeliet P. Molecular mechanisms of lymphangiogenesis in health and disease. Cancer Cell 2002; 1: 21927.
  • 14
    Zeng Y, Opeskin K, Baldwin ME, Horvath LG, Achen MG, Stacker SA, Sutherland RL, Williams ED. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 by lymphatic endothelial cells is associated with lymph node metastasis in prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2004; 10: 513744.
  • 15
    Kaushal V, Mukunyadzi P, Dennis RA, Siegel ER, Johnson DE, Kohli M. Stage-specific characterization of the vascular endothelial growth factor axis in prostate cancer: expression of lymphangiogenic markers is associated with advanced-stage disease. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11: 58493.
  • 16
    Zeng Y, Opeskin K, Horvath LG, Sutherland RL, Williams ED. Lymphatic vessel density and lymph node metastasis in prostate cancer. Prostate 2005; 65: 22230.
  • 17
    Tsurusaki T, Kanda S, Sakai H, Kanetake H, Saito Y, Alitalo K, Koji T. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression in human prostatic carcinoma and its relationship to lymph node metastasis. Br J Cancer 1999; 80: 30913.
  • 18
    Lin J, Lalani AS, Harding TC, Gonzalez M, Wu WW, Luan B, Tu GH, Koprivnikar K, VanRoey MJ, He Y, Alitalo K, Jooss K. Inhibition of lymphogenous metastasis using adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer of a soluble VEGFR-3 decoy receptor. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 69019.
  • 19
    Jiang WG, Davies G, Martin TA, Parr C, Watkins G, Mansel RE, Mason MD. The potential lymphangiogenic effects of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor in vitro and in vivo. Int J Mol Med 2005; 16: 7238.
  • 20
    Craft N, Shostak Y, Carey M, Sawyers CL. A mechanism for hormone-independent prostate cancer through modulation of androgen receptor signaling by the HER-2/neu tyrosine kinase. Nat Med 1999; 5: 2805.
  • 21
    Craft N, Chhor C, Tran C, Belldegrun A, DeKernion J, Witte ON, Said J, Reiter RE, Sawyers CL. Evidence for clonal outgrowth of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells from androgen-dependent tumors through a two-step process. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 50306.
  • 22
    Adams JY, Johnson M, Sato M, Berger F, Gambhir SS, Carey M, Iruela-Arispe ML, Wu L. Visualization of advanced human prostate cancer lesions in living mice by a targeted gene transfer vector and optical imaging. Nat Med 2002; 8: 8917.
  • 23
    Jenkins DE, Oei Y, Hornig YS, Yu SF, Dusich J, Purchio T, Contag PR. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to improve and refine traditional murine models of tumor growth and metastasis. Clin Exp Metastasis 2003; 20: 73344.
  • 24
    Klein KA, Reiter RE, Redula J, Moradi H, Zhu XL, Brothman AR, Lamb DJ, Marcelli M, Belldegrun A, Witte ON, Sawyers CL. Progression of metastatic human prostate cancer to androgen independence in immunodeficient SCID mice. Nat Med 1997; 3: 4028.
  • 25
    Morizono K, Xie Y, Ringpis GE, Johnson M, Nassanian H, Lee B, Wu L, Chen IS. Lentiviral vector retargeting to P-glycoprotein on metastatic melanoma through intravenous injection. Nat Med 2005; 11: 34652.
  • 26
    Dull T, Zufferey R, Kelly M, Mandel RJ, Nguyen M, Trono D, Naldini L. A third-generation lentivirus vector with a conditional packaging system. J Virol 1998; 72: 846371.
  • 27
    Bhaumik S, Gambhir SS. Optical imaging of Renilla luciferase reporter gene expression in living mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99: 37782.
  • 28
    Brakenhielm E, Veitonmaki N, Cao R, Kihara S, Matsuzawa Y, Zhivotovsky B, Funahashi T, Cao Y. Adiponectin-induced antiangiogenesis and antitumor activity involve caspase-mediated endothelial cell apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004; 101: 247681.
  • 29
    Cao R, Brakenhielm E, Pawliuk R, Wariaro D, Post MJ, Wahlberg E, Leboulch P, Cao Y. Angiogenic synergism, vascular stability and improvement of hind-limb ischemia by a combination of PDGF-BB and FGF-2. Nat Med 2003; 9: 60413.
  • 30
    Edinger M, Cao YA, Hornig YS, Jenkins DE, Verneris MR, Bachmann MH, Negrin RS, Contag CH. Advancing animal models of neoplasia through in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Eur J Cancer 2002; 38: 212836.
  • 31
    Crowley CW, Cohen RL, Lucas BK, Liu G, Shuman MA, Levinson AD. Prevention of metastasis by inhibition of the urokinase receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90: 50215.
  • 32
    Cao Y, Linden P, Farnebo J, Cao R, Eriksson A, Kumar V, Qi JH, Claesson-Welsh L, Alitalo K. Vascular endothelial growth factor C induces angiogenesis in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998; 95: 1438994.
  • 33
    Su JL, Yang PC, Shih JY, Yang CY, Wei LH, Hsieh CY, Chou CH, Jeng YM, Wang MY, Chang KJ, Hung MC, Kuo ML. The VEGF-C/Flt-4 axis promotes invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Cancer Cell 2006; 9: 20923.
  • 34
    De S, Chen J, Narizhneva NV, Heston W, Brainard J, Sage EH, Byzova TV. Molecular pathway for cancer metastasis to bone. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 3904450.
  • 35
    Sramkoski RM, Pretlow TG,II, Giaconia JM, Pretlow TP, Schwartz S, Sy MS, Marengo SR, Rhim JS, Zhang D, Jacobberger JW. A new human prostate carcinoma cell line, 22Rv1. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 1999; 35: 4039.
  • 36
    Holleran JL, Miller CJ, Culp LA. Tracking micrometastasis to multiple organs with lacZ-tagged CWR22R prostate carcinoma cells. J Histochem Cytochem 2000; 48: 64351.
  • 37
    Joukov V, Pajusola K, Kaipainen A, Chilov D, Lahtinen I, Kukk E, Saksela O, Kalkkinen N, Alitalo K. A novel vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF-C, is a ligand for the Flt4 (VEGFR-3) and KDR (VEGFR-2) receptor tyrosine kinases. Embo J 1996; 15: 2908.
  • 38
    Roma AA, Magi-Galluzzi C, Kral MA, Jin TT, Klein EA, Zhou M. Peritumoral lymphatic invasion is associated with regional lymph node metastases in prostate adenocarcinoma. Mod Pathol 2006; 19: 3928.
  • 39
    Wong SY, Haack H, Crowley D, Barry M, Bronson RT, Hynes RO. Tumor-secreted vascular endothelial growth factor-C is necessary for prostate cancer lymphangiogenesis, but lymphangiogenesis is unnecessary for lymph node metastasis. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 978998.
  • 40
    Trojan L, Rensch F, Voss M, Grobholz R, Weiss C, Jackson DG, Alken P, Michel MS. The role of the lymphatic system and its specific growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor C, for lymphogenic metastasis in prostate cancer. BJU Int 2006; 98: 9036.
  • 41
    Hoshida T, Isaka N, Hagendoorn J, di Tomaso E, Chen YL, Pytowski B, Fukumura D, Padera TP, Jain RK. Imaging steps of lymphatic metastasis reveals that vascular endothelial growth factor-C increases metastasis by increasing delivery of cancer cells to lymph nodes: therapeutic implications. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 806575.
  • 42
    Zeng Y, Opeskin K, Goad J, Williams ED. Tumor-induced activation of lymphatic endothelial cells via vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 is critical for prostate cancer lymphatic metastasis. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 956675.
  • 43
    Schoppmann SF, Birner P, Stockl J, Kalt R, Ullrich R, Caucig C, Kriehuber E, Nagy K, Alitalo K, Kerjaschki D. Tumor-associated macrophages express lymphatic endothelial growth factors and are related to peritumoral lymphangiogenesis. Am J Pathol 2002; 161: 94756.
  • 44
    Hirakawa S, Kodama S, Kunstfeld R, Kajiya K, Brown LF, Detmar M. VEGF-A induces tumor and sentinel lymph node lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis. J Exp Med 2005; 201: 108999.
  • 45
    Shu CJ, Guo S, Kim YJ, Shelly SM, Nijagal A, Ray P, Gambhir SS, Radu CG, Witte ON. Visualization of a primary antitumor immune response by positron emission tomography. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102: 174127.