Regular use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs reduces both the development of colorectal neoplasia and recurrence of colorectal adenoma (CRA). Modulation of the effects of aspirin by genetic factors has been reported, potentially allowing targeting of treatment to individuals most likely to gain benefit. Prostaglandin H synthase 1 (PTGS1) and PTGS2 are key enzymes in prostaglandin synthesis and are inhibited by aspirin, whilst interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an important antiinflammatory cytokine. We investigated whether functional genetic polymorphisms in the PTGS1, PTGS2 and IL-10 genes influence CRA recurrence in individuals participating in a randomized aspirin intervention trial. DNA was available for genotyping from 546 patients who received aspirin (300 mg daily) or placebo for a mean 41-months' duration. Homozygote carriers of variant alleles for the PTGS1 50C>T, PTGS2 −765G>C and IL-10 −592C>A polymorphisms did not have a significantly altered risk of CRA recurrence (relative risk [RR] = 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14–6.07, RR = 1.32; 95%CI: 0.66–2.62 and RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 0.74–2.07, respectively). There were also no significant interactions between aspirin intervention and genotype in determining recurrence risk. These data indicate that these polymorphisms are unlikely to influence CRA recurrence and cannot be used to identify individuals who derive benefit from aspirin intervention. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.