• urogenital cancer;
  • family history;
  • case-control study


Family history of urogenital cancers has been associated with an increased risk of cancer at the same sites. To evaluate the risks of bladder, prostate and renal cell neoplasms for family history of urogenital cancers in first-degree relatives, we analysed data from a case-control study conducted in northern Italy between 1985 and 1992 and including a total of 1,356 incident, histologically confirmed cancer cases: 727 bladder, 348 renal cell and 281 prostate cancer cases. Controls were 1,067 patients admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute, nonneoplastic conditions. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of urogenital cancers, adjusting for age, sex, study centre, education, body mass index, smoking habit, alcohol consumption and number of brothers and, where appropriate, sisters. ORs of urogenital cancers for subjects with at least 1 first-degree relative with cancer at the same site were 6.1 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.3–16.6] for bladder, 2.0 (95% CI: 0.6–6.2) for renal cell and 2.0 (95% CI: 0.9–4.1) for prostate cancer. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.