Foreign-body-induced carcinogenesis is a traditional, maybe old, way of understanding cancer development. A number of novel approaches are available today to elucidate cancer development. However, there are things we learn from the old, and thus I bring out some examples of various clinical cases and experimental models of foreign-body-induced tumorigenesis. What is notable is that the foreign bodies themselves are unrelated to each other, whereas commonly underlying in them is to induce inflammatory reaction, especially stromal proliferation, where those exogenous materials are incorporated and undigested. Such foreign-body-induced carcinogenesis is also recognized in the step of tumor progression, the final step of carcinogenesis that tumor cells acquire malignant phenotypes including metastatic properties. And the phenomenon is universally observed in several cell lines of different origins. In this review I would like to show the evidence that tumor development and progression are accelerated inevitably by inflammation caused from foreign bodies, and that reactive oxygen species derived from inflammatory cells are one of the most important genotoxic mediators to accelerate the process. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.