Cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and the risk of gallbladder cancer death: A prospective cohort study in Japan



Gallbladder cancer is a rare cancer with a poor prognosis, and few risk factors have been identified to date. This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with the risk of gallbladder cancer death. A baseline survey in 45 areas throughout Japan was conducted from 1988 to 1990 using a self-administered questionnaire, and a total of 113,496 participants (65,740 women) aged 40–89 years at entry were followed for 15 years. During the follow-up period, 165 gallbladder cancer deaths (95 women) were observed. Among women, the hazard ratio (HR) [95 percent confidence interval: 95% CI] of current smoker was 2.00 [0.91–4.42], when adjusted for age and drinking. There was no clear association between alcohol consumption and the risk. Among men, HR of current smoker was 2.27 [1.05–4.90]. HRs of those who smoked 21 cigarettes or more per day and those with 801–1,000 cigarette-years were 3.18 [1.18–8.53] and 3.44 [1.40–8.45], respectively, and positive linear associations were observed between that risk and the number of cigarettes per day (p for trend = 0.007) or “cigarette-years” (p for trend = 0.012). The alcohol dose was linearly associated with risk (p for trend = 0.004), where the HR among those who consumed 72.0 g or more of alcohol per day was 3.60 [1.29–9.85]. Among both men and women, cigarette smoking may elevate the risk of death from gallbladder cancer. Drinking may pose an elevated risk among men, but that seems to be less true among women. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.