IQGAP2 inactivation through aberrant promoter methylation and promotion of invasion in gastric cancer cells

Authors

  • Shun-Hua Jin,

    1. Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Yoshimitsu Akiyama,

    1. Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Hiroshi Fukamachi,

    1. Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Kazuyoshi Yanagihara,

    1. Central Animal Laboratory, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Takumi Akashi,

    1. Department of Pathology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Yasuhito Yuasa

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
    • Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan
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    • Fax: +81-3-5803-0125.


Abstract

Invasion and metastases of cancer cells are the main causes of treatment failure in cancer. IQ motif-containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1), plays pivotal roles in intercellular adhesion, migration, invasion and metastases in various cancer cells. However, the role of another family member, IQGAP2, in carcinogenesis remains unknown. Here, we investigated IQGAP2 functions in gastric cancers. We found that IQGAP2 protein expression was lost in 5 of the 9 gastric cancer cell lines. Through analysis by the methylation-specific PCR, aberrant IQGAP2 methylation was detected in 3 gastric cancer cell lines. IQGAP2 mRNA was found to be activated after 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment of the methylation-positive cells. Moreover, IQGAP2 methylation was detected in 28 of the 59 (47%) primary gastric cancer tissues, but not in 12 normal gastric mucosa samples. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that 7 of the 8 (88%) gastric cancer tissues without methylation signals displayed IQGAP2 expression, whereas among 10 with methylation signals none expressed IQGAP2 (p = 0.0002), indicating that IQGAP2 methylation is highly associated with loss of the IQGAP2 expression in the primary gastric cancer tissues as well as gastric cancer cell lines. Furthermore, IQGAP2 methylation was also associated with tumor invasion and a poor prognosis. IQGAP2 knockdown with small interfering RNA increased the invasive capacity of a gastric cancer cell line. These results suggest that silencing of IQGAP2 by promoter methylation may contribute to gastric cancer development. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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