SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures. American Cancer Society, 2007.
  • 2
    Bostwick DG,Burke HB,Djakiew D,Euling S,Ho SM,Landolph J,Morrison H,Sonawane B,Shifflett T,Waters DJ,Timms B. Human prostate cancer risk factors. Cancer 2004; 101: 2371490.
  • 3
    Hsing AW,Chokkalingam AP. Prostate cancer epidemiology. Front Biosci 2006; 11: 1388413.
  • 4
    Noble RL. The development of prostatic adenocarcinoma in Nb rats following prolonged sex hormone administration. Cancer Res 1977; 37: 192933.
  • 5
    Pollard M,Luckert PH,Schmidt MA. Induction of prostate adenocarcinomas in Lobund Wistar rats by testosterone. Prostate 1982; 3: 5638.
  • 6
    Chan JM,Stampfer MJ,Giovannucci EL. What causes prostate cancer? A brief summary of the epidemiology. Semin Cancer Biol 1998; 8: 26373.
  • 7
    Huggins C,Hodge GB. Studies on prostatic cancer. I. The effect of castration, of estrogen and of androgen injection on serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. Cancer Res 1941; 1: 2937.
  • 8
    Chokkalingam AP,Stanczyk FZ,Reichardt JK,Hsing AW. Molecular epidemiology of prostate cancer: hormone-related genetic loci. Front Biosci 2007; 12: 343660.
  • 9
    Kahn SM,Hryb DJ,Nakhla AM,Romas NA,Rosner W. Sex hormone-binding globulin is synthesized in target cells. J Endocrinol 2002; 175: 11320.
  • 10
    Lucia MS,Bostwick DG,Bosland M,Cockett AT,Knapp DW,Leav I,Pollard M,Rinker-Schaeffer C,Shirai T,Watkins BA. Workgroup I: rodent models of prostate cancer. Prostate 1998; 36: 4955.
  • 11
    Barrett-Connor E,Garland C,McPhillips JB,Khaw KT,Wingard DL. A prospective, population-based study of androstenedione, estrogens, and prostatic cancer. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 16973.
  • 12
    Chen C,Weiss NS,Stanczyk FZ,Lewis SK,DiTommaso D,Etzioni R,Barnett MJ,Goodman GE. Endogenous sex hormones and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study nested within the carotene and retinol efficacy trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12: 141016.
  • 13
    Dorgan JF,Albanes D,Virtamo J,Heinonen OP,Chandler DW,Galmarini M,McShane LM,Barrett MJ,Tangrea J,Taylor PR. Relationships of serum androgens and estrogens to prostate cancer risk: results from a prospective study in Finland. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998; 7: 106974.
  • 14
    Guess HA,Friedman GD,Sadler MC,Stanczyk FZ,Vogelman JH,Imperato-McGinley J,Lobo RA,Orentreich N. 5α-reductase activity and prostate cancer: a case-control study using stored sera. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997; 6: 214.
  • 15
    Heikkila R,Aho K,Heliovaara M,Hakama M,Marniemi J,Reunanen A,Knekt P. Serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations and the risk of prostate carcinoma: a longitudinal study. Cancer 1999; 86: 31215.
  • 16
    Hsing AW,Reichardt JK,Stanczyk FZ. Hormones and prostate cancer: current perspectives and future directions. Prostate 2002; 52: 21335.
  • 17
    Mohr BA,Feldman HA,Kalish LA,Longcope C,McKinlay JB. Are serum hormones associated with the risk of prostate cancer? Prospective results from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. Urology 2001; 57: 9305.
  • 18
    Nomura A,Heilbrun LK,Stemmermann GN,Judd HL. Prediagnostic serum hormones and the risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Res 1988; 48: 351517.
  • 19
    Nomura AM,Stemmermann GN,Chyou PH,Henderson BE,Stanczyk FZ. Serum androgens and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1996; 5: 6215.
  • 20
    Parsons JK,Carter HB,Platz EA,Wright EJ,Landis P,Metter EJ. Serum testosterone and the risk of prostate cancer: potential implications for testosterone therapy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 225760.
  • 21
    Platz EA,Leitzmann MF,Rifai N,Kantoff PW,Chen YC,Stampfer MJ,Willett WC,Giovannucci E. Sex steroid hormones and the androgen receptor gene CAG repeat and subsequent risk of prostate cancer in the prostate-specific antigen era. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 12629.
  • 22
    Severi G,Morris HA,MacInnis RJ,English DR,Tilley W,Hopper JL,Boyle P,Giles GG. Circulating steroid hormones and the risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15: 8691.
  • 23
    Stattin P,Lumme S,Tenkanen L,Alfthan H,Jellum E,Hallmans G,Thoresen S,Hakulinen T,Luostarinen T,Lehtinen M,Dillner J,Stenman UH, et al. High levels of circulating testosterone are not associated with increased prostate cancer risk: a pooled prospective study. Int J Cancer 2004; 108: 41824.
  • 24
    Travis RC,Key TJ,Allen NE,Appleby PN,Roddam AW,Rinaldi S,Egevad L,Gann PH,Rohrmann S,Linseisen J,Pischon T,Boeing H, et al. Serum androgens and prostate cancer among 643 cases and 643 controls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Int J Cancer 2007; 121: 13318.
  • 25
    Tsai CJ,Cohn BA,Cirillo PM,Feldman D,Stanczyk FZ,Whittemore AS. Sex steroid hormones in young manhood and the risk of subsequent prostate cancer: a longitudinal study in African-Americans and Caucasians (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2006; 17: 123744.
  • 26
    Vatten LJ,Ursin G,Ross RK,Stanczyk FZ,Lobo RA,Harvei S,Jellum E. Androgens in serum and the risk of prostate cancer: a nested case-control study from the Janus serum bank in Norway. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997; 6: 9679.
  • 27
    Wiren S,Stocks T,Rinaldi S,Hallmans G,Bergh A,Stenman UH,Kaaks R,Stattin P. Androgens and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study. Prostate 2007; 67: 12307.
  • 28
    Gohagan JK,Prorok PC,Hayes RB,Kramer BS. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial of the National Cancer Institute: history, organization, and status. Control Clin Trials 2000; 21: 251S272S.
  • 29
    Hayes RB,Sigurdson A,Moore L,Peters U,Huang WY,Pinsky P,Reding D,Gelmann EP,Rothman N,Pfeiffer RM,Hoover RN,Berg CD. Methods for etiologic and early marker investigations in the PLCO trial. Mutat Res 2005; 592: 14754.
  • 30
    Andriole GL,Levin DL,Crawford ED,Gelmann EP,Pinsky PF,Chia D,Kramer BS,Reding D,Church TR,Grubb RL,Izmirlian G,Ragard LR, et al. Prostate cancer screening in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial: findings from the initial screening round of a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97: 4338.
  • 31
    BeahrsOH,HensonDE,HutterRVP,KennedyBJ, eds. Prostate. In: AJCC manual for staging of cancer,4th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, 1992. 1816.
  • 32
    FlemingID,CooperJS,HensonED,HutterRVP,KennedyBJ,MurphyGP, eds. Prostate. In: AJCC cancer staging manualed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven, 1997. 21924.
  • 33
    Rothman KJ,Greenland S. Modern epidemiologyed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Raven, 1998.
  • 34
    Ly LP,Handelsman DJ. Empirical estimation of free testosterone from testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin immunoassays. Eur J Endocrinol 2005; 152: 4718.
  • 35
    Morris PD,Malkin CJ,Channer KS,Jones TH. A mathematical comparison of techniques to predict biologically available testosterone in a cohort of 1072 men. Eur J Endocrinol 2004; 151: 2419.
  • 36
    Harrell,Jr.FE. Missing data regression modeling strategies: with applications to linear models, logistic regression, and survival analysis. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001. 4152.
  • 37
    Gann PH,Hennekens CH,Ma J,Longcope C,Stampfer MJ. Prospective study of sex hormone levels and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996; 88: 111826.
  • 38
    Platz EA,Giovannucci E. The epidemiology of sex steroid hormones and their signaling and metabolic pathways in the etiology of prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2004; 92: 23753.
  • 39
    Vermeulen A,Verdonck L,Kaufman JM. A critical evaluation of simple methods for the estimation of free testosterone in serum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84: 366672.
  • 40
    Nakhla AM,Khan MS,Rosner W. Biologically active steroids activate receptor-bound human sex hormone-binding globulin to cause LNCaP cells to accumulate adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990; 71: 398404.
  • 41
    Rosner W,Hryb DJ,Khan MS,Nakhla AM,Romas NA. Sex hormone-binding globulin. Binding to cell membranes and generation of a second messenger. J Androl 1992; 13: 1016.
  • 42
    Hryb DJ,Khan MS,Romas NA,Rosner W. The control of the interaction of sex hormone-binding globulin with its receptor by steroid hormones. J Biol Chem 1990; 265: 604854.
  • 43
    Hryb DJ,Khan MS,Romas NA,Rosner W. Solubilization and partial characterization of the sex hormone-binding globulin receptor from human prostate. J Biol Chem 1989; 264: 537883.
  • 44
    Nakhla AM,Ding VD,Khan MS,Romas NA,Rhodes L,Smith RG,Rosner W. 5α-Androstan-3α, 17β-diol is a hormone: stimulation of cAMP accumulation in human and dog prostate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995; 80: 225962.
  • 45
    Nakhla AM,Romas NA,Rosner W. Estradiol activates the prostate androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen secretion through the intermediacy of sex hormone-binding globulin. J Biol Chem 1997; 272: 683841.
  • 46
    Nakhla AM,Rosner W. Stimulation of prostate cancer growth by androgens and estrogens through the intermediacy of sex hormone-binding globulin. Endocrinology 1996; 137: 41269.