We previously reported identifying SOX6 as a glioma antigen by serological screening using a testis cDNA library. Its preferential expression and frequent IgG responses in glioma patients indicate that SOX6 may be a useful target for immunotherapy. To examine whether cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses specific for SOX6 to destroy glioma can be generated in vivo, we treated glioma-bearing mice by vaccination with a plasmid DNA encoding murine full-length SOX6 protein. Following SOX6-DNA vaccination, CTLs specific for SOX6-expressing glioma cells were induced, while normal autologous-cells that had restrictedly expressed SOX6 during embryogenesis were not destroyed. Furthermore, DNA vaccination with SOX6 exerted protective and therapeutic antitumor responses in the glioma-bearing mice. This antitumor activity was abrogated by the depletion of CD4 positive T cells and/or CD8 positive T cells. These results suggest that the SOX6 protein has multiple CTL and helper epitopes to induce antitumor activity and the effectiveness of SOX6-DNA vaccine for the prevention and treatment of glioma. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.