• 1
    Jemal A,Siegel R,Ward E,Murray T,Xu J,Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2007. CA Cancer J Clin 2007; 57: 4366.
  • 2
    Oh WK,Kantoff PW. Management of hormone refractory prostate cancer: current standards and future prospects. J Urol 1998; 160: 12209.
  • 3
    Yagoda A,Petrylak D. Cytotoxic chemotherapy for advanced hormone-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer 1993; 71: 1098109.
  • 4
    Tannock IF,de Wit R,Berry WR,Horti J,Pluzanska A,Chi KN,Oudard S,Theodore C,James ND,Turesson I,Rosenthal MA,Eisenberger MA. Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 150212.
  • 5
    Petrylak DP,Tangen CM,Hussain MH,Lara PN,Jr,Jones JA,Taplin ME,Burch PA,Berry D,Moinpour C,Kohli M,Benson MC,Small EJ, et al. Docetaxel and estramustine compared with mitoxantrone and prednisone for advanced refractory prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 151320.
  • 6
    Gottesman MM. Mechanisms of cancer drug resistance. Annu Rev Med 2002; 53: 61527.
  • 7
    Jordan MA,Wilson L. Microtubules as a target for anticancer drugs. Nat Rev Cancer 2004; 4: 25365.
  • 8
    Nieman JA,Coleman JE,Wallace DJ,Piers E,Lim LY,Roberge M,Andersen RJ. Synthesis and antimitotic/cytotoxic activity of hemiasterlin analogues. J Nat Prod 2003; 66: 18399.
  • 9
    Zask A,Birnberg G,Cheung K,Kaplan J,Niu C,Norton E,Suayan R,Yamashita A,Cole D,Tang Z,Krishnamurthy G,Williamson R, et al. Synthesis and biological activity of analogues of the antimicrotubule agent N,β, β-trimethyl-L-phenylalanyl-N(1)-[(1S,2E)-3-carboxy-1-isopropylbu t-2-enyl]-N(1),3-dimethyl-L-valinamide (HTI-286). J Med Chem 2004; 47: 477486.
  • 10
    Ayral-Kaloustian S,Zask A. Taltobulin. Drugs Future 2005; 30: 25460.
  • 11
    Nunes M,Kaplan J,Wooters J,Hari M,Minnick AA,Jr,May MK,Shi C,Musto S,Beyer C,Krishnamurthy G,Qiu Y,Loganzo F, et al. Two photoaffinity analogues of the tripeptide, hemiasterlin, exclusively label α-tubulin. Biochemistry 2005; 44: 684457.
  • 12
    Ravi M,Zask A,Rush TS,III. Structure-based identification of the binding site for the hemiasterlin analogue HTI-286 on tubulin. Biochemistry 2005; 44: 158719.
  • 13
    Krishnamurthy G,Cheng W,Lo MC,Aulabaugh A,Razinkov V,Ding W,Loganzo F,Zask A,Ellestad G. Biophysical characterization of the interactions of HTI-286 with tubulin heterodimer and microtubules. Biochemistry 2003; 42: 1348495.
  • 14
    Anderson HJ,Coleman JE,Andersen RJ,Roberge M. Cytotoxic peptides hemiasterlin, hemiasterlin A and hemiasterlin B induce mitotic arrest and abnormal spindle formation. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1997; 39: 2236.
  • 15
    Loganzo F,Discafani CM,Annable T,Beyer C,Musto S,Hari M,Tan X,Hardy C,Hernandez R,Baxter M,Singanallore T,Khafizova G, et al. HTI-286, a synthetic analogue of the tripeptide hemiasterlin is a potent antimicrotubule agent that circumvents P-glycoprotein-mediated resistance in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 183845.
  • 16
    Loganzo F,Hari M,Annable T,Tan X,Morilla DB,Musto S,Zask A,Kaplan J,Minnick AA,Jr,May MK,Ayral-Kaloustian S,Poruchynsky MS, et al. Cells resistant to HTI-286 do not overexpress P-glycoprotein but have reduced drug accumulation and a point mutation in α-tubulin. Mol Cancer Ther 2004; 3: 131927.
  • 17
    Thalmann GN,Anezinis PE,Chang SM,Zhau HE,Kim EE,Hopwood VL,Pathak S,von Eschenbach AC,Chung LW. Androgen-independent cancer progression and bone metastasis in the LNCaP model of human prostate cancer. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 257781.
  • 18
    Zhang X,Jackson JK,Burt HM. Development of amphiphilic diblock copolymers as micellar carriers of paclitaxel. Int J Pharm 1996; 132: 195206.
  • 19
    Zellweger T,Chi K,Miyake H,Adomat H,Kiyama S,Skov K,Gleave ME. Enhanced radiation sensitivity in prostate cancer by inhibition of the cell survival protein clusterin. Clin Cancer Res 2002; 8: 327684.
  • 20
    Darzynkiewicz Z,Huang X,Okafuji M,King MA. Cytometric methods to detect apoptosis. Methods Cell Biol 2004; 75: 30741.
  • 21
    Li Y,Li X,Hussain M,Sarkar FH. Regulation of microtubule, apoptosis, and cell cycle-related genes by taxotere in prostate cancer cells analyzed by microarray. Neoplasia 2004; 6: 15867.
  • 22
    Tusher VG,Tibshirani R,Chu G. Significance analysis of microarrays applied to the ionizing radiation response. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001; 98: 511621.
  • 23
    Heid CA,Stevens J,Livak KJ,Williams PM. Real time quantitative PCR. Genome Res 1996; 6: 98694.
  • 24
    Gleave M,Hsieh JT,Gao CA,von Eschenbach AC,Chung LW. Acceleration of human prostate cancer growth in vivo by factors produced by prostate and bone fibroblasts. Cancer Res 1991; 51: 375361.
  • 25
    Chen JG,Horwitz SB. Differential mitotic responses to microtubule-stabilizing and -destabilizing drugs. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 19358.
  • 26
    Galletti E,Michela MM,Renzulli L,Maurizio B. Paclitaxel and docetaxel resistance: molecular mechanisms and development of new generation taxanes. Chem Med Chem 2007; 2: 92042.
  • 27
    Dang LH,Bettegowda C,Agrawal N,Cheong I,Huso D,Frost P,Loganzo F,Greenberger L,Barkoczy J,Pettit GR,Smith AB,III,Gurulingappa H, et al. Targeting vascular and avascular compartments of tumors with C novyi-NT and anti-microtubule agents. Cancer Biol Ther 2004; 3: 32637.
  • 28
    Vashist YK,Tiffon C,Stoupis C,Redaelli CA. Inhibition of hepatic tumor cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo by taltobulin, a synthetic analogue of the tripeptide hemiasterlin. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12: 67718.
  • 29
    Ratain MJ,Undevia S,Janisch L,Roman S,Mayer P,Buckwalter M,Foss D,Hamilton BL,Fischer J,Bukowski RM. Phase 1 and pharmacological study of HTI-286, a novel antimicrotubule agent: correlation of neutropenia with time above a threshold serum concentration. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2003; 22: (Abstract 516).
  • 30
    Miyake H,Hara S,Arakawa S,Kamidono S,Hara I. Optimal timing and dosage of chemotherapy as a combined treatment with androgen withdrawal in the human prostate LNCaP tumour model. Br J Cancer 2001; 84: 85963.
  • 31
    Eigl BJ,Eggener SE,Baybik J,Ettinger S,Chi KN,Nelson C,Wang Z,Gleave ME. Timing is everything: preclinical evidence supporting simultaneous rather than sequential chemohormonal therapy for prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11: 490511.
  • 32
    Hadaschik BA,Sowery RD,Gleave ME. Novel targets and approaches in advanced prostate cancer. Curr Opin Urol 2007; 17: 1827.
  • 33
    Varambally S,Dhanasekaran SM,Zhou M,Barrette TR,Kumar-Sinha C,Sanda MG,Ghosh D,Pienta KJ,Sewalt RG,Otte AP,Rubin MA,Chinnaiyan AM. The polycomb group protein EZH2 is involved in progression of prostate cancer. Nature 2002; 419: 6249.
  • 34
    Bryant RJ,Cross NA,Eaton CL,Hamdy FC,Cunliffe VT. EZH2 promotes proliferation and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells. Prostate 2007; 67: 54756.
  • 35
    Tang X,Milyavsky M,Shats I,Erez N,Goldfinger N,Rotter V. Activated p53 suppresses the histone methyltransferase EZH2 gene. Oncogene 2004; 23: 575969.
  • 36
    Nelson J,Bagnato A,Battistini B,Nisen P. The endothelin axis: emerging role in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 2003; 3: 11016.
  • 37
    Raymond MN,Bole-Feysot C,Banno Y,Tanfin Z,Robin P. Endothelin-1 inhibits apoptosis through a sphingosine kinase 1-dependent mechanism in uterine leiomyoma ELT3 cells. Endocrinology 2006; 147: 587382.
  • 38
    Titus B,Frierson HF,Jr,Conaway M,Ching K,Guise T,Chirgwin J,Hampton G,Theodorescu D. Endothelin axis is a target of the lung metastasis suppressor gene RhoGDI2. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 73207.
  • 39
    Bao GC,Wang JG,Jong A. Increased p21 expression and complex formation with cyclin E/CDK2 in retinoid-induced pre-B lymphoma cell apoptosis. FEBS Lett 2006; 580: 368793.
  • 40
    Bartolini G,Orlandi M,Papi A,Ammar K,Guerra F,Ferreri AM,Rocchi P. A search for multidrug resistance modulators: the effects of retinoids in human colon carcinoma cells. In Vivo 2006; 20: 72933.
  • 41
    Dvorak Z,Vrzal R,Ulrichova J,Macejova D,Ondkova S,Brtko J. Expression, protein stability and transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptors are affected by microtubules interfering agents and all-trans-retinoic acid in primary rat hepatocytes. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2007; 267: 8996.
  • 42
    Bergstralh DT,Ting JP. Microtubule stabilizing agents: their molecular signaling consequences and the potential for enhancement by drug combination. Cancer Treat Rev 2006; 32: 16679.
  • 43
    Chi KN,Eisenhauer E,Fazli L,Jones EC,Goldenberg SL,Powers J,Tu D,Gleave ME. A phase I pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of OGX-011, a 2′-methoxyethyl antisense oligonucleotide to clusterin, in patients with localized prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97: 128796.
  • 44
    Groth-Pedersen L,Ostenfeld MS,Hoyer-Hansen M,Nylandsted J,Jaattela M. Vincristine induces dramatic lysosomal changes and sensitizes cancer cells to lysosome-destabilizing siramesine. Cancer Res 2007; 67: 221725.