• oxidative stress;
  • 8-OHdG;
  • ROS;
  • iNOS;
  • eNOS;
  • ssDNA;
  • OGG1;
  • APE-1;
  • DNA repair;
  • urinary bladder carcinoma;
  • schistosomes


To cast light on mechanisms underlying development of urothelial carcinomas (UCs) of the urinary bladder associated with Schistosomiasis, we immunohistochemically analyzed the relationship between oxidative stress markers, DNA single strand breaks (ssDNA) which could also measure the levels of base damage and apoptosis in DNA, and expression of DNA repair genes with levels of nitric oxide synthases in bladder carcinomas of Egyptian patients with or without Schistosoma hematobium infection. Marked elevation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels was found in squamous cell carcinomas and UCs associated with Schistosomiasis when compared with non-Schistosomal carcinomas. This was accompanied by strong over expression of the DNA-repair genes, 8-oxoguanine-DNA-glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, as well as increased formation levels of ssDNA. Expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) which is known to be indirectly related to oxidative stress was higher in Schistosomal than in the non-Schistosomal carcinomas. However, expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was slightly stronger in non-Schistosomal than in the Schistosomal carcinomas. In conclusion, these findings suggest a strong correlation between Schistosoma haematobium infection and increased levels of oxidative stress accompanied by a continuous DNA damage and repair in UCs, all directly correlating with elevated iNOS. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.