Prostate cancer family history has been associated with increased risk of the malignancy. Most prior studies have been retrospective and subject to recall bias, however, and data evaluating interactions with other important risk factors are limited. We examined the relationship between a family history of prostate cancer and prostate cancer risk in relation to body size, micronutrients and other exposures in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study cohort of Finnish male smokers. Family history of cancer information was self-reported once during the study in 1991, and anthropometry was measured by trained personnel. Among 19,652 men with complete data, 1,111 incident cases were identified during up to 12.3 years of follow-up. A first-degree family history of prostate cancer was associated with an overall relative risk (RR) of 1.91 (95% CI = 1.49–2.47) and a RR of 4.16 (95% CI = 2.67–6.49) for advanced disease (stage ≥ 3), adjusted for age and trial intervention. Our data also suggest that to some degree, height, body mass index, and serum α-tocopherol and β-carotene modify the family history and prostate cancer association, although the interactions were not statistically significant. Supplementation with vitamin E or β-carotene did not modify the family history-prostate cancer association. This study provides additional evidence that family history is a significant risk factor for prostate cancer. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.