Oncolytic virotherapy has demonstrated multimodal antitumor mechanisms in both preclinical and clinical settings for cancer treatment, including antitumor immunity. Compared with conventional immunotherapy, oncolytic viruses have the advantages of simultaneous cytoreduction and conferring personalized anticancer immunity, but without the need of personalized manufacture. Additionally, oncolytic viruses can be further engineered to delete immunosuppressive viral components and to insert transgenes that enhance antitumor immunity. Finally, combination with new immunomodulating agents (e.g., cyclophosphamide) or cell therapy approaches will likely further augment specific antitumor immunity of virotherapy. Virotherapy could become a new paradigm for potent, safe and practical therapeutic vaccines for cancer. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.