• 1
    Boon H,Stewart M,Kennard MA,Gray R,Sawka C,Brown JB,McWilliam C,Gavin A,Baron RA,Aaron D,Haines-Kamka T. Use of complementary/alternative medicine by breast cancer survivors in Ontario: prevalence and perceptions. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18: 251521.
  • 2
    Burstein HJ,Gelber S,Guadagnoli E,Weeks JC. Use of alternative medicine by women with early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 17339.
  • 3
    Gupta D,Lis CG,Birdsall TC,Grutsch JF. The use of dietary supplements in a community hospital comprehensive cancer center: implications for conventional cancer care. Support Care Cancer 2005; 13: 9129.
  • 4
    Kumar NB,Hopkins K,Allen K,Riccardi D,Besterman-Dahan K,Moyers S. Use of complementary/integrative nutritional therapies during cancer treatment: implications in clinical practice. Cancer Control 2002; 9: 23643.
  • 5
    Lee MM,Lin SS,Wrensch MR,Adler SR,Eisenberg D. Alternative therapies used by women with breast cancer in four ethnic populations. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 427.
  • 6
    Molassiotis A,Fernandez-Ortega P,Pud D,Ozden G,Platin N,Hummerston S,Scott JA,Panteli V,Gudmundsdottir G,Selvekerova S,Patiraki E,Kearney N. Complementary and alternative medicine use in colorectal cancer patients in seven European countries. Complement Ther Med 2005; 13: 2517.
  • 7
    Molassiotis A,Ozden G,Platin N,Scott JA,Pud D,Fernandez-Ortega P,Milovics L,Panteli V,Gudmundsdottir G,Browall M,Madsen E,Patiraki E, et al. Complementary and alternative medicine use in patients with head and neck cancers in Europe. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2006; 15: 1924.
  • 8
    Molassiotis A,Scott JA,Kearney N,Pud D,Magri M,Selvekerova S,Bruyns I,Fernadez-Ortega P,Panteli V,Margulies A,Gudmundsdottir G,Milovics L, et al. Complementary and alternative medicine use in breast cancer patients in Europe. Support Care Cancer 2006; 14: 2607.
  • 9
    Richardson MA,Sanders T,Palmer JL,Greisinger A,Singletary SE. Complementary/alternative medicine use in a comprehensive cancer center and the implications for oncology. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18: 250514.
  • 10
    VandeCreek L,Rogers E,Lester J. Use of alternative therapies among breast cancer outpatients compared with the general population. Altern Ther Health Med 1999; 5: 716.
  • 11
    Verhoef M,Balneaves L,Boon H,Vroejindewey A. Reasons for and characteristics associated with complementary and alternative medicine use among adult cancer patients: a systematic review. Integr Cancer Ther 2004; 3: 112.
  • 12
    D'Andrea GM. Use of antioxidants during chemotherapy and radiotherapy should be avoided. CA Cancer J Clin 2005; 55: 31921.
  • 13
    Conklin KA. Chemotherapy-associated oxidative stress: impact on chemotherapeutic effectiveness. Integr Cancer Ther 2004; 3: 294300.
  • 14
    Block KI,Koch AC,Mead MN,Tothy PK,Newman RA,Gyllenhaal C. Impact of antioxidant supplementation on chemotherapeutic efficacy: a systematic review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. Cancer Treat Rev 2007; 33: 40718.
  • 15
    Alberts DS,Noel JK. Cisplatin-associated neurotoxicity: can it be prevented? Anticancer Drug 1995; 6: 36983.
  • 16
    Taguchi T,Nazneen A,Abid MR,Razzaque MS. Cisplatin-associated nephrotoxicity and pathological events. Contrib Nephrol 2005; 148: 10721.
  • 17
    Hrelia S,Bordoni A,Angeloni C,Leoncini E,Biagi P. Nutritional interventions to counteract oxidative stress in cardiac cells. Ital J Biochem 2004; 53: 15763.
  • 18
    Hardman J,Limbird L,Molinoff P,Ruddon R,Gilman A. Goodman and Gilman's “the pharmacological basis of therapeutics,” 9th edn. New York: McGraw Hill, 1996.
  • 19
    Ladas EJ,Jacobson JS,Kennedy DD,Teel K,Fleischauer A,Kelly KM. Antioxidants and cancer therapy: a systematic review. J Clin Oncol 2004; 22: 51728.
  • 20
    Almushatat AS,Talwar D,McArdle PA,Williamson C,Sattar N,O'Reilly DS,Underwood MA,McMillan DC. Vitamin antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and the systemic inflammatory response in patients with prostate cancer. Int J Cancer 2006; 118: 10513.
  • 21
    Diakowska D,Lewandowski A,Kopec W,Diakowski W,Chrzanowska T. Oxidative DNA damage and total antioxidant status in serum of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology 2007; 54: 17014.
  • 22
    Tesarova P,Kalousova M,Trnkova B,Soukupova J,Argalasova S,Mestek O,Petruzelka L,Zima T. Carbonyl and oxidative stress in patients with breast cancer—is there a relation to the stage of the disease? Neoplasma 2007; 54: 21924.
  • 23
    Erhola M,Toyokuni S,Okada K,Tanaka T,Hiai H,Ochi H,Uchida K,Osawa T,Nieminen MM,Alho H,Kellokumpu-Lehtinen P. Biomarker evidence of DNA oxidation in lung cancer patients: association of urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine excretion with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and response to treatment. FEBS Lett 1997; 409: 28791.
  • 24
    Sangeetha P,Das UN,Koratkar R,Suryaprabha P. Increase in free radical generation and lipid peroxidation following chemotherapy in patients with cancer. Free Radic Biol Med 1990; 8: 159.
  • 25
    Neugut AI,Matasar M,Wang X,McBride R,Jacobson JS,Tsai WY,Grann VR,Hershman DL. Duration of adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer and survival among the elderly. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24: 236875.
  • 26
    Jadad AR,Moore RA,Carroll D,Jenkinson C,Reynolds DJ,Gavaghan DJ,McQuay HJ. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials 1996; 17: 112.
  • 27
    Gopal R. Non-small cell lung cancer: the role of cytoprotection in treating therapy-related toxicity. J Support Oncol 2004; 2: 137.
  • 28
    McCumber LM. The potential influence of cell protectors for dose escalation in cancer therapy: an analysis of amifostine. Med Dosim 2004; 29: 13943.
  • 29
    Cascinu S,Catalano V,Cordella L,Labianca R,Giordani P,Baldelli AM,Beretta GD,Ubiali E,Catalano G. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20: 347883.
  • 30
    Schmidinger M,Budinsky AC,Wenzel C,Piribauer M,Brix R,Kautzky M,Oder W,Locker GJ,Zielinski CC,Steger GG. Glutathione in the prevention of cisplatin induced toxicities. A prospectively randomized pilot trial in patients with head and neck cancer and non small cell lung cancer. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2000; 112: 61723.
  • 31
    Smyth JF,Bowman A,Perren T,Wilkinson P,Prescott RJ,Quinn KJ,Tedeschi M. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol 1997; 8: 56973.
  • 32
    Bogliun G,Marzorati L,Marzola M,Miceli MD,Cantu MG,Cavaletti G. Neurotoxicity of cisplatin +/− reduced glutathione in first-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1996; 6: 4159.
  • 33
    Cascinu S,Cordella L,Del Ferro E,Fronzoni M,Catalano G. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995; 13: 2632.
  • 34
    Colombo N,Bini S,Miceli D,Bogliun G,Marzorati L,Cavaletti G,Parmigiani F,Venturino P,Tedeschi M,Frattola L,Buratti C,Mangioni C. Weekly cisplatin +/− glutathione in relapsed ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995; 5: 816.
  • 35
    Parnis F,Coleman R,Harper P,Pickering D,Topham C,Whittington J,Tedeschi M. A randomized double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial assessing the tolerability and efficacy of glutathione as an adjuvant to escalating doses of cisplatin in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. Eur J Cancer 1995; 31A: 1721.
  • 36
    Catalano V,Cascinu S,Labianca R,Giordani P,Mosconi S,Cordella L,Ubiali E,Baldelli AM,Pessi MA,Catalano G. Neuroprotective effect of glutathione (GSH) on oxaliplatin (L-OHP) based chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer patients (pts): a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Cancer 2001; 37: S280S281.
  • 37
    Fujimoto S,Miyazaki M,Kitsukawa Y,Okui K,Hosaka T,Karaki S,Kawanomoto S. Clinical evaluation of prolonged chemotherapy combined with induction of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes as an adjuvant for treating patients with gastric cancer. Jpn J Surg 1983; 13: 48692.
  • 38
    Choi K, Lee SS, Oh SJ, Lim SY, Lim SY, Jeon WK, Oh TY, Kim JW. The effect of oral glutamine on 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin-induced mucositis/stomatitis assessed by intestinal permeability test. Clin Nutr 2007; 26: 5762.
  • 39
    Wang WS,Lin JK,Lin TC,Chen WS,Jiang JK,Wang HS,Chiou TJ,Liu JH,Yen CC,Chen PM. Oral glutamine is effective for preventing oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in colorectal cancer patients. Oncologist 2007; 12: 3129.
  • 40
    Lissoni P,Chilelli M,Villa S,Cerizza L,Tancini G. Five years survival in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy and melatonin: a randomized trial. J Pineal Res 2003; 35: 125.
  • 41
    Cerea G,Vaghi M,Ardizzoia A,Villa S,Bucovec R,Mengo S,Gardani G,Tancini G,Lissoni P. Biomodulation of cancer chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer: a randomized study of weekly low-dose irinotecan alone versus irinotecan plus the oncostatic pineal hormone melatonin in metastatic colorectal cancer patients progressing on 5-fluorouracil-containing combinations. Anticancer Res 2003; 23: 19514.
  • 42
    Lissoni P,Barni S,Mandala M,Ardizzoia A,Paolorossi F,Vaghi M,Longarini R,Malugani F,Tancini G. Decreased toxicity and increased efficacy of cancer chemotherapy using the pineal hormone melatonin in metastatic solid tumour patients with poor clinical status. Eur J Cancer 1999; 35: 168892.
  • 43
    Lissoni P,Paolorossi F,Ardizzoia A,Barni S,Chilelli M,Mancuso M,Tancini G,Conti A,Maestroni GJ. A randomized study of chemotherapy with cisplatin plus etoposide versus chemoendocrine therapy with cisplatin, etoposide and the pineal hormone melatonin as a first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients in a poor clinical state. J Pineal Res 1997; 23: 159.
  • 44
    Lissoni P,Tancini G,Barni S,Paolorossi F,Ardizzoia A,Conti A,Maestroni G. Treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced toxicity with the pineal hormone melatonin. Support Care Cancer 1997; 5: 1269.
  • 45
    Ghielmini M,Pagani O,de Jong J,Pampallona S,Conti A,Maestroni G,Sessa C,Cavalli F. Double-blind randomized study on the myeloprotective effect of melatonin in combination with carboplatin and etoposide in advanced lung cancer. Br J Cancer 1999; 80: 105861.
  • 46
    Lissoni P. Biochemotherapy with standard chemotherapies plus the pineal hormone melatonin in the treatment of advanced solid neoplasms. Pathol Biol (Paris) 2007; 55: 2014.
  • 47
    Pace A,Savarese A,Picardo M,Maresca V,Pacetti U,Del Monte G,Biroccio A,Leonetti C,Jandolo B,Cognetti F,Bove L. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21: 92731.
  • 48
    Wadleigh R,Redman R,Graham M,Krasnow S,Anderson A,Cohen M. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med 1992; 92: 4814.
  • 49
    Whittaker JA,Al-Ismail SA. Effect of digoxin and vitamin E in preventing cardiac damage caused by doxorubicin in acute myeloid leukaemia. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984; 288: 2834.
  • 50
    Argyriou AA,Chroni E,Koutras A,Iconomou G,Papapetropoulos S,Polychronopoulos P,Kalofonos HP A randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of vitamin E supplementation for protection against cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy: final results. Support Care Cancer 2006; 14: 113440.
  • 51
    Argyriou AA,Chroni E,Koutras A,Iconomou G,Papapetropoulos S,Polychronopoulos P,Kalofonos HP. Preventing paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy: a phase II trial of vitamin E supplementation. J Pain Symptom Manage 2006; 32: 23744.
  • 52
    Pathak A,Bhutani M,Guleria R,Bal S,Mohan A,Mohanti BK,Sharma A,Pathak R,Bhardwaj NK,Prasad KN,Kochupillai V. Chemotherapy alone vs. chemotherapy plus high dose multiple antioxidants in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer. J Am Coll Nutr 2005; 24: 1621.
  • 53
    Falsaperla M,Morgia G,Tartarone A,Ardito R,Romano G. Support ellagic acid therapy in patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) on standard chemotherapy using vinorelbine and estramustine phosphate. Eur Urol 2005; 47: 44954.
  • 54
    Weijl NI,Elsendoorn TJ,Lentjes EGWM,Hopman GD,Wipkink-Bakker A,Zwinderman AH,Cleton FJ,Osanto S. Supplementation with antioxidant micronutrients and chemotherapy-induced toxicity in cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Cancer 2004; 40: 171323.
  • 55
    Meyskens FL,Jr,Kopecky KJ,Appelbaum FR,Balcerzak SP,Samlowski W,Hynes H. Effects of vitamin A on survival in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia: a SWOG randomized trial. Leuk Res 1995; 19: 60512.
  • 56
    Myers C,Bonow R,Palmeri S,Jenkins J,Corden B,Locker G,Doroshow J,Epstein S. A randomized controlled trial assessing the prevention of doxorubicin cardiomyopathy by N-acetylcysteine. Semin Oncol 1983; 10: 535.
  • 57
    Lin PC,Lee MY,Wang WS,Yen CC,Chao TC,Hsiao LT,Yang MH,Chen PM,Lin KP,Chiou TJ. N-acetylcysteine has neuroprotective effects against oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer patients: preliminary data. Support Care Cancer 2006; 14: 4847.
  • 58
    Waldner R,Laschan C,Lohninger A,Gessner M,Tuchler H,Huemer M,Spiegel W,Karlic H. Effects of doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy and a combination with L-carnitine on oxidative metabolism in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2006; 132: 1218.
  • 59
    Iarussi D,Auricchio U,Agretto A,Murano A,Giuliano M,Casale F,Indolfi P,Iacono A. Protective effect of coenzyme Q10 on anthracyclines cardiotoxicity: control study in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mol Aspects Med 1994; 15S: S207S12.
  • 60
    Sieja K,Talerczyk M. Selenium as an element in the treatment of ovarian cancer in women receiving chemotherapy. Gynecol Oncol 2004; 93: 3207.
  • 61
    Federico A,Lodice P,Federico P,Del Rio A,Mellone M,Catalano G,Federico P. Effects of selenium and zinc supplementation on nutritional status in patients with cancer of digestive tract. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001; 55: 2937.
  • 62
    Keizer HG,Pinedo HM,Schuurhuis GJ,Joenje H. Doxorubicin (adriamycin): a critical review of free radical-dependent mechanisms of cytotoxicity. Pharmacol Ther 1990; 47: 21931.
  • 63
    Moher D,Dulberg CS,Wells GA. Statistical power, sample size, and their reporting in randomized controlled trials. JAMA 1994; 272: 1224.