• 1
    Bouillon R,Eelen G,Verlinden L,Mathieu C,Carmeliet G,Verstuyf A. Vitamin D and cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2006; 102: 156162.
  • 2
    Colston KW,Hansen CM. Mechanisms implicated in the growth regulatory effects of vitamin D in breast cancer. Endocrine Relat Cancer 2002; 9: 4559.
  • 3
    Christakos S,Dhawan P,Liu Y,Peng X,Porta A. New insights into the mechanisms of vitamin D action. J Cell Biochem 2003; 88: 695705.
  • 4
    Eisman JA,MacIntyre I,Martin TJ,Frampton RJ,King RJ. Normal and malignant breast tissue is a target organ for 1,25-(0H)2 vitamin D3. Clin Endocrinol (Oxford) 1980; 13: 267272.
  • 5
    Saez S,Falette N,Guillot C,Meggouh F,Lefebvre MF,Crepin M. William L. McGuire Memorial Symposium. 1,25(OH)2D3 modulation of mammary tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1993; 27: 6981.
  • 6
    Trump DL,Hershberger PA,Bernardi RJ,Ahmed S,Muindi J,Fakih M,Yu WD,Johnson CS. Anti-tumor activity of calcitriol: pre-clinical and clinical studies. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2004; 89–90: 51926.
  • 7
    Shin MH,Holmes MD,Hankinson SE,Wu K,Colditz GA,Willett WC. Intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin d and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 130111.
  • 8
    McCullough ML,Rodriguez C,Diver WR,Feigelson HS,Stevens VL,Thun MJ,Calle EE. Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 2898904.
  • 9
    Witte JS,Ursin G,Siemiatycki J,Thompson WD,Paganini-Hill A,Haile RW. Diet and premenopausal bilateral breast cancer: a case-control study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1997; 42: 24351.
  • 10
    Potischman N,Swanson CA,Coates RJ,Gammon MD,Brogan DR,Curtin J,Brinton LA. Intake of food groups and associated micronutrients in relation to risk of early-stage breast cancer. Int J Cancer 1999; 82: 31521.
  • 11
    Levi F,Pasche C,Lucchini F,La Vecchia C. Dietary intake of selected micronutrients and breast-cancer risk. Int J Cancer 2001; 91: 2603.
  • 12
    Simard A,Vobecky J,Vobecky JS. Vitamin D deficiency and cancer of the breast: an unprovocative ecological hypothesis. Can J Public Health 1991; 82: 3003.
  • 13
    Abbas S,Linseisen J,Chang-Claude J. Dietary vitamin D and calcium intake and premenopausal breast cancer risk in a german case-control study. Nutr Cancer 2007; 59: 5461.
  • 14
    Robien K,Cutler GJ,Lazovich D. Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Cancer Causes Control 2007; 18: 77582.
  • 15
    Lin J,Manson JE,Lee IM,Cook NR,Buring JE,Zhang SM. Intakes of calcium and vitamin D and breast cancer risk in women. Arch Int Med 2007; 167: 10509.
  • 16
    John EM,Schwartz GG,Dreon DM,Koo J. Vitamin D and breast cancer risk: the NHANES I Epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971–1975 to 1992. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999; 8: 399406.
  • 17
    John EM,Schwartz GG,Koo J,Wang W,Ingles SA. Sun Exposure, Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms, and Breast Cancer Risk in a Multiethnic Population. Am J Epidemiol 2007; 166: 140919.
  • 18
    Friedrich M,Rafi L,Mitschele T,Tilgen W,Schmidt W,Reichrath J. Analysis of the vitamin D system in cervical carcinomas, breast cancer and ovarian cancer. Recent Results Cancer Res 2003; 164: 23946.
  • 19
    Welsh JE,Wietzke JA,Zinser GM,Byrne B,Smith K,Narvaez CJ. Vitamin D-3 receptor as a target for breast cancer prevention. J Nutr 2003; 133: 2425S33S.
  • 20
    Zehnder D,Bland R,Williams MC,McNinch RW,Howie AJ,Stewart PM,Hewison M. Extrarenal expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin d(3)-1 alpha-hydroxylase. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 88894.
  • 21
    Abbas S,Linseisen J,Slanger T,Kropp S,Mutschelknauss EJ,Flesch-Janys D,Chang-Claude J. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of post-menopausal breast cancer–results of a large case-control study. Carcinogenesis 2008; 29: 939.
  • 22
    Freedman DM,Chang SC,Falk RT,Purdue MP,Huang WY,McCarty CA,Hollis BW,Graubard BI,Berg CD,Ziegler RG. Serum levels of vitamin D metabolites and breast cancer risk in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17: 88994.
  • 23
    Lowe LC,Guy M,Mansi JL,Peckitt C,Bliss J,Wilson RG,Colston KW. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations, vitamin D receptor genotype and breast cancer risk in a UK Caucasian population. Eur J Cancer 2005; 41: 11649.
  • 24
    Bertone-Johnson ER,Chen WY,Holick MF,Hollis BW,Colditz GA,Willett WC,Hankinson SE. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin d and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 19917.
  • 25
    Janowsky EC,Lester GE,Weinberg CR,Millikan RC,Schildkraut JM,Garrett PA,Hulka BS. Association between low levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and breast cancer risk. Public Health Nutr 1999; 2: 28391.
  • 26
    Bertone-Johnson ER. Prospective studies of dietary vitamin D and breast cancer: more questions raised than answered. Nutr Rev 2007; 65: 45966.
  • 27
    Chang-Claude J,Eby N,Kiechle M,Bastert G,Becher H. Breastfeeding and breast cancer risk by age 50 among women in Germany. Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11: 68795.
  • 28
    Royston P,Ambler G,Sauerbrei W. The use of fractional polynomials to model continuous risk variables in epidemiology. Int J Epidemiol 1999; 28: 96474.
  • 29
    Rowling MJ,Kemmis CM,Taffany DA,Welsh J. Megalin-mediated endocytosis of vitamin D binding protein correlates with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol actions in human mammary cells. J Nutr 2006; 136: 27549.
  • 30
    Kemmis CM,Salvador SM,Smith KM,Welsh J. Human mammary epithelial cells express CYP27B1 and are growth inhibited by 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3, the major circulating form of vitamin D-3. J Nutr 2006; 136: 88792.
  • 31
    Hansen CM,Binderup L,Hamberg KJ,Carlberg C Vitamin D and cancer: effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs on growth control and tumorigenesis. Front Biosci 2001; 6: D820D48.
  • 32
    Swami S,Raghavachari N,Muller UR,Bao YP,Feldman D. Vitamin D growth inhibition of breast cancer cells: gene expression patterns assessed by cDNA microarray. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2003; 80: 4962.
  • 33
    Hiatt RA,Krieger N,Lobaugh B,Drezner MK,Vogelman JH,Orentreich N. Prediagnostic serum vitamin D and breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 46163.
  • 34
    Diorio C,Berube S,Byrne C,Masse B,Hebert-Croteau N,Yaffe M,Cote G,Pollak M,Brisson J. Influence of insulin-like growth factors on the strength of the relation of vitamin D and calcium intakes to mammographic breast density. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 58897.
  • 35
    Xie SP,James SY,Colston KW. Vitamin D derivatives inhibit the mitogenic effects of IGF-I on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. J Endocrinol 1997; 154: 495504.
  • 36
    Bell NH. Vitamin D metabolism, aging, and bone loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995; 80: 1051.
  • 37
    James SY,Mackay AG,Binderup L,Colston KW. Effects of a new synthetic vitamin D analogue. EB1089, on the oestrogen-responsive growth of human breast cancer cells. J Endocrinol 1994; 141: 55563.
  • 38
    Swami S,Krishnan AV,Feldman D. 1 alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 down-regulates estrogen receptor abundance and suppresses estrogen actions in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6: 33719.
  • 39
    Peng X,Jhaveri P,Hussain-Hakimjee EA,Mehta RG. Overexpression of ER and VDR is not sufficient to make ER-negative MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells responsive to 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D5. Carcinogenesis 2007; 28: 10007.
  • 40
    Flanagan L,Packman K,Juba B,O'Neill S,Tenniswood M,Welsh J. Efficacy of Vitamin D compounds to modulate estrogen receptor negative breast cancer growth and invasion. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2003; 84: 181192.
  • 41
    Elstner E,Linker-Israeli M,Said J,Umiel T,de Vos S,Shintaku IP,Heber D,Binderup L,Uskokovic M,Koeffler HP. 20-epi-vitamin D3 analogues: a novel class of potent inhibitors of proliferation and inducers of differentiation of human breast cancer cell lines. Cancer Res 1995; 55: 282230.
  • 42
    Holick MF. Vitamin D: biosynthesis, metabolism, and mode of action. In: DeGrootLJ,CahillGFJr,MartiniL,NelsonDH,OdellWD,PottsJT,Jr,SteinbergerE,WinegradAI, eds. Endocrinology. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1989. 90226.
  • 43
    Feskanich D,Ma J,Fuchs CS,Kirkner GJ,Hankinson SE,Hollis BW,Giovannucci EL. Plasma vitamin D metabolites and risk of colorectal cancer in women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004; 13: 15028.
  • 44
    Mehta R,Hawthorne M,Uselding L,Albinescu D,Moriarty R,Christov K,Mehta R. Prevention of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats by 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(5). J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 183640.
  • 45
    Mehta RG,Moriarty RM,Mehta RR,Penmasta R,Lazzaro G,Constantinou A,Guo L. Prevention of preneoplastic mammary lesion development by a novel vitamin D analogue, 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D5. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 89: 2128.
  • 46
    VanWeelden K,Flanagan L,Binderup L,Tenniswood M,Welsh J. Apoptotic regression of MCF-7 xenografts in nude mice treated withthe vitamin D3 analog. EB1089. Endocrinology 1998; 139: 210210.
  • 47
    Kailajarvi ME,Salminen EK,Paija OM,Virtanent AM,Leino AE,Irjala KA. Serum bone markers in breast cancer patients during 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC) therapy. Anticancer Res 2004; 24: 12714.
  • 48
    Gao Y,Shimizu M,Yamada S,Ozaki Y,Aso T. The effects of chemotherapy including cisplatin on vitamin D metabolism. Endocrinol J 1993; 40: 73742.
  • 49
    Hintzpeter B,Mensink GB,Thierfelder W,Muller MJ,Scheidt-Nave C. Vitamin D status and health correlates among German adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007 May 30; Epub ahead of print.
  • 50
    Binkley N,Krueger D,Cowgill CS,Plum L,Lake E,Hansen KE,DeLuca HF,Drezner MK. Assay variation confounds the diagnosis of hypovitaminosis D: a call for standardization. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 31527.
  • 51
    Hollis BW. Editorial: The determination of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: no easy task. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 314951.
  • 52
    Zerwekh JE. The measurement of vitamin D: analytical aspects. Ann Clin Biochem 2004; 41: 27281.
  • 53
    Carter GD,Carter R,Jones J,Berry J. How accurate are assays for 25-hydroxyvitamin D? Data from the international vitamin D external quality assessment scheme. Clin Chem 2004; 50: 21957.