SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Bernstein H,Bernstein C,Payne CM,Dvorakova K,Garewal H. Bile acids as carcinogens in human gastrointestinal cancers. Mutat Res 2005; 589: 4765.
  • 2
    Lechner S,Muller-Ladner U,Schlottmann K,Jung B,McClelland M,Ruschoff J,Welsh J,Scholmerich J,Kullmann F. Bile acids mimic oxidative stress induced upregulation of thioredoxin reductase in colon cancer cell lines. Carcinogenesis 2002; 23: 12818.
  • 3
    Hirose Y,Rao CV,Reddy BS. Modulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat intestinal cells by colon tumor promoters. Int J Oncol 2001; 18: 1416.
  • 4
    Flood A,Velie EM,Sinha R,Chaterjee N,Lacey JV,Jr.,Schairer C,Schatzkin A. Meat, fat, and their subtypes as risk factors for colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort of women. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 158: 5968.
  • 5
    Goldbohm RA,van den Brandt PA,Van't Veer P,Brants HA,Dorant E,Sturmans F,Hermus RJ. A prospective cohort study on the relation between meat consumption and the risk of colon cancer. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 71823.
  • 6
    Willett WC,Stampfer MJ,Colditz GA,Rosner BA,Speizer FE. Relation of meat, fat, and fiber intake to the risk of colon cancer in a prospective study among women. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 166472.
  • 7
    Giovannucci E,Rimm EB,Stampfer MJ,Colditz GA,Ascherio A,Willett WC. Intake of fat, meat, and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in men. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 23907.
  • 8
    Norat T,Bingham S,Ferrari P,Slimani N,Jenab M,Mazuir M,Overvad K,Olsen A,Tjonneland A,Clavel F,Boutron-Ruault MC,Kesse E, et al. Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97: 90616.
  • 9
    Jones R,Adel-Alvarez LA,Alvarez OR,Broaddus R,Das S. Arachidonic acid and colorectal carcinogenesis. Mol Cell Biochem 2003; 253: 1419.
  • 10
    Roynette CE,Calder PC,Dupertuis YM,Pichard C. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and colon cancer prevention. Clin Nutr 2004; 23: 13951.
  • 11
    Cao Y,Prescott SM. Many actions of cyclooxygenase-2 in cellular dynamics and in cancer. J Cell Physiol 2002; 190: 27986.
  • 12
    Stoehlmacher J,Lenz HJ. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in colorectal cancer. Semin Oncol 2003; 30: 106.
  • 13
    Clarke RG,Lund EK,Latham P,Pinder AC,Johnson IT. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on the proliferation and incidence of apoptosis in the colorectal cell line HT29. Lipids 1999; 34: 128795.
  • 14
    Larsson SC,Kumlin M,Ingelman-Sundberg M,Wolk A. Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79: 93545.
  • 15
    Geelen A,Schouten JM,Kamphuis C,Stam BE,Burema J,Renkema JM,Bakker EJ,Van't Veer P,Kampman E. Fish consumption, n-3 fatty acids, and colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Epidemiol 2007; 166: 111625.
  • 16
    World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. AICR, 2007.
  • 17
    MacLean CH,Newberry SJ,Mojica WA,Khanna P,Issa AM,Suttorp MJ,Lim YW,Traina SB,Hilton L,Garland R,Morton SC. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cancer risk: a systematic review. JAMA 2006; 295: 40315.
  • 18
    Tokudome S,Kojima M,Suzuki S,Ichikawa H,Ichikawa Y,Miyata M,Maeda K,Marumoto M,Agawa H,Arakawa K,Tanaka T,Ando R, et al. Marine n-3 fatty acids and colorectal cancer: is there a real link? Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15: 4067.
  • 19
    Wong MT,Eu KW. Rise of colorectal cancer in Singapore: an epidemiological review. ANZ J Surg 2007; 77: 4469.
  • 20
    Yuan JM,Stram DO,Arakawa K,Lee HP,Yu MC. Dietary cryptoxanthin and reduced risk of lung cancer: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12: 8908.
  • 21
    Parkin DM,Whelan SL,Ferlay J,Teppo L,De Thomas. Cancer incidence in five continents. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2003.
  • 22
    Hankin JH,Stram DO,Arakawa K,Park S,Low SH,Lee HP,Yu MC. Singapore Chinese Health Study: development, validation, and calibration of the quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Nutr Cancer 2001; 39: 18795.
  • 23
    Cox D. Regression models and life tables. J R Stat Soc 1972; B: 187220.
  • 24
    Tsong WH,Koh WP,Yuan JM,Wang R,Sun CL,Yu MC. Cigarettes and alcohol in relation to colorectal cancer: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Br J Cancer 2007; 96: 8217.
  • 25
    Seow A,Yuan JM,Koh WP,Lee HP,Yu MC. Diabetes mellitus and risk of colorectal cancer in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006; 98: 1358.
  • 26
    Kleinbaum D,Kupper L,Muller K,Nizam A. Applied regression analysis and multivariable methods, 3rd edn. Pacific Grove, CA: Duxbury, 1998.
  • 27
    Wong NY,Nenny S,Guy RJ,Seow-Choen F. Adults in a high-risk area are unaware of the importance of colorectal cancer: a telephone and mail survey. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002; 45: 94650.
  • 28
    Majumdar SR,Fletcher RH,Evans AT. How does colorectal cancer present? Symptoms, duration, and clues to location. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 303945.
    Direct Link:
  • 29
    Rao CV,Hirose Y,Indranie C,Reddy BS. Modulation of experimental colon tumorigenesis by types and amounts of dietary fatty acids. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 192733.
  • 30
    Haile RW,Witte JS,Longnecker MP,Probst-Hensch N,Chen MJ,Harper J,Frankl HD,Lee ER. A sigmoidoscopy-based case-control study of polyps: macronutrients, fiber and meat consumption. Int J Cancer 1997; 73: 497502.
  • 31
    Kato I,Akhmedkhanov A,Koenig K,Toniolo PG,Shore RE,Riboli E. Prospective study of diet and female colorectal cancer: the New York University Women's Health Study. Nutr Cancer 1997; 28: 27681.
  • 32
    Le Marchand L,Wilkens LR,Hankin JH,Kolonel LN,Lyu LC. A case-control study of diet and colorectal cancer in a multiethnic population in Hawaii (United States): lipids and foods of animal origin. Cancer Causes Control 1997; 8: 63748.
  • 33
    Theodoratou E,McNeill G,Cetnarskyj R,Farrington SM,Tenesa A,Barnetson R,Porteous M,Dunlop M,Campbell H. Dietary fatty acids and colorectal cancer: a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 2007; 166: 18195.
  • 34
    Wong KY,Su J,Knize MG,Koh WP,Seow A. Dietary exposure to heterocyclic amines in a Chinese population. Nutr Cancer 2005; 52: 14755.
  • 35
    Slattery ML,Curtin K,Anderson K,Ma KN,Edwards S,Leppert M,Potter J,Schaffer D,Samowitz WS. Associations between dietary intake and Ki-ras mutations in colon tumors: a population-based study. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 693541.
  • 36
    Slattery ML,Anderson K,Curtin K,Ma KN,Schaffer D,Samowitz W. Dietary intake and microsatellite instability in colon tumors. Int J Cancer 2001; 93: 6017.
  • 37
    Diergaarde B,Braam H,van Muijen GN,Ligtenberg MJ,Kok FJ,Kampman E. Dietary factors and microsatellite instability in sporadic colon carcinomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12: 11306.
  • 38
    Thiebaut AC,Kipnis V,Chang SC,Subar AF,Thompson FE,Rosenberg PS,Hollenbeck AR,Leitzmann M,Schatzkin A. Dietary fat and postmenopausal invasive breast cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007; 99: 45162.
  • 39
    Griffini P,Fehres O,Klieverik L,Vogels IM,Tigchelaar W,Smorenburg SM,Van Noorden CJ. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote colon carcinoma metastasis in rat liver. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 33129.
  • 40
    Martin D,Meckling-Gill KA. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase purine but not pyrimidine transport in L1210 leukaemia cells. Biochem J 1996; 315 (Part 1): 32933.
  • 41
    Virella G,Kilpatrick JM,Rugeles MT,Hyman B,Russell R. Depression of humoral responses and phagocytic functions in vivo and in vitro by fish oil and eicosapentanoic acid. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1989; 52: 25770.
  • 42
    Rees D,Miles EA,Banerjee T,Wells SJ,Roynette CE,Wahle KW,Calder PC. Dose-related effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on innate immune function in healthy humans: a comparison of young and older men. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 83: 33142.
  • 43
    Bostick RM,Potter JD,Kushi LH,Sellers TA,Steinmetz KA,McKenzie DR,Gapstur SM,Folsom AR. Sugar, meat, and fat intake, and non-dietary risk factors for colon cancer incidence in Iowa women (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1994; 5: 3852.
  • 44
    Lin J,Zhang SM,Cook NR,Lee IM,Buring JE. Dietary fat and fatty acids and risk of colorectal cancer in women. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 160: 101122.
  • 45
    Terry P,Bergkvist L,Holmberg L,Wolk A. No association between fat and fatty acids intake and risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001; 10: 91314.
  • 46
    Kobayashi M,Tsubono Y,Otani T,Hanaoka T,Sobue T,Tsugane S. Fish, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and risk of colorectal cancer in middle-aged Japanese: the JPHC study. Nutr Cancer 2004; 49: 3240.
  • 47
    Kojima M,Wakai K,Tokudome S,Suzuki K,Tamakoshi K,Watanabe Y,Kawado M,Hashimoto S,Hayakawa N,Ozasa K,Toyoshima H,Suzuki S, et al. Serum levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of colorectal cancer: a prospective study. Am J Epidemiol 2005; 161: 46271.
  • 48
    Kuriki K,Nagaya T,Tokudome Y,Imaeda N,Fujiwara N,Sato J,Goto C,Ikeda M,Maki S,Tajima K,Tokudome S. Plasma concentrations of (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids are good biomarkers of relative dietary fatty acid intakes: a cross-sectional study. J Nutr 2003; 133: 364350.
  • 49
    Burger J,Fleischer J,Gochfeld M. Fish, shellfish, and meat meals of the public in Singapore. Environ Res 2003; 92: 25461.
  • 50
    Reddy BS,Burill C,Rigotty J. Effect of diets high in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on initiation and postinitiation stages of colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 1991; 51: 48791.
  • 51
    Hall MN,Chavarro JE,Lee IM,Willett WC,Ma J. A 22-year prospective study of fish, n-3 fatty acid intake, and colorectal cancer risk in men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17: 113643.