• 1
    Jemal A,Siegel R,Ward E,Hao Y,Xu J,Murray T,Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2008. CA Cancer J Clin 2008; 58: 7196.
  • 2
    Faivre J,Dancourt V,Lejeune C,Tazi MA,Lamour J,Gerard D,Dassonville F,Bonithon-Kopp C. Reduction in colorectal cancer mortality by fecal occult blood screening in a French controlled study. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 167480.
  • 3
    Hardcastle JD,Chamberlain JO,Robinson MH,Moss SM,Amar SS,Balfour TW,James PD,Mangham CM. Randomised controlled trial of faecal-occult-blood screening for colorectal cancer. Lancet 1996; 348: 14727.
  • 4
    Kronborg O,Fenger C,Olsen J,Jorgensen OD,Sondergaard O. Randomised study of screening for colorectal cancer with faecal-occult-blood test. Lancet 1996; 348: 146771.
  • 5
    Mandel JS,Church TR,Ederer F,Bond JH. Colorectal cancer mortality: effectiveness of biennial screening for fecal occult blood. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999; 91: 4347.
  • 6
    Gyrd-Hansen D,Sogaard J,Kronborg O. Analysis of screening data: colorectal cancer. Int J Epidemiol 1997; 26: 117281.
  • 7
    Church TR,Ederer F,Mandel JS. Fecal occult blood screening in the Minnesota study: sensitivity of the screening test. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 89: 14408.
  • 8
    Young GP,St John DJ,Winawer SJ,Rozen P. Choice of fecal occult blood tests for colorectal cancer screening: recommendations based on performance characteristics in population studies: a WHO (World Health Organization) and OMED (World Organization for Digestive Endoscopy) report. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97: 2499507.
  • 9
    Levin TR. Flexible sigmoidoscopy for colorectal cancer screening: valid approach or short-sighted? Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2002; 31: 101529,vii.
  • 10
    Lieberman DA,Weiss DG. One-time screening for colorectal cancer with combined fecal occult-blood testing and examination of the distal colon. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 55560.
  • 11
    Rex DK,Cutler CS,Lemmel GT,Rahmani EY,Clark DW,Helper DJ,Lehman GA,Mark DG. Colonoscopic miss rates of adenomas determined by back-to-back colonoscopies. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 248.
  • 12
    Rex DK,Rahmani EY,Haseman JH,Lemmel GT,Kaster S,Buckley JS. Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema for detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice [see comments]. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 1723.
  • 13
    Hixson LJ,Fennerty MB,Sampliner RE,Garewal HS. Prospective blinded trial of the colonoscopic miss-rate of large colorectal polyps. Gastrointest Endosc 1991; 37: 1257.
  • 14
    Hoff G,Sauar J,Vatn MH,Larsen S,Langmark F,Moen IE,Foerster A,Thiis-Evensen E. Polypectomy of adenomas in the prevention of colorectal cancer: 10 years' follow-up of the Telemark Polyp Study I. Scand J Gastroenterol 1996; 31: 100610.
  • 15
    Muller AD,Sonnenberg A. Protection by endoscopy against death from colorectal cancer. A case-control study among veterans. Arch Intern Med 1995; 155: 17418.
  • 16
    Newcomb PA,Storer BE,Morimoto LM,Templeton A,Potter JD. Long-term efficacy of sigmoidoscopy in the reduction of colorectal cancer incidence. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95: 6225.
  • 17
    Selby JV,Friedman GD,Quesenberry CP,Jr,Weiss NS. A case-control study of screening sigmoidoscopy and mortality from colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 6537.
  • 18
    Atkin WS,Edwards R,Wardle J,Northover JM,Sutton S,Hart AR,Williams CB,Cuzick J. Design of a multicentre randomised trial to evaluate flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer screening. J Med Screen 2001; 8: 13744.
  • 19
    Bretthauer M,Gondal G,Larsen K,Carlsen E,Eide TJ,Grotmol T,Skovlund E,Tveit KM,Vatn MH,Hoff G. Design, organization and management of a controlled population screening study for detection of colorectal neoplasia: attendance rates in the NORCCAP study (Norwegian Colorectal Cancer Prevention). Scand J Gastroenterol 2002; 37: 56873.
  • 20
    Prorok PC,Andriole GL,Bresalier RS,Buys SS,Chia D,Crawford ED,Fogel R,Gelmann EP,Gilbert F,Hasson MA,Hayes RB,Johnson CC, et al. Design of the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian (PLCO) cancer Screening Trial. Control Clin Trials 2000; 21: 273S309S.
  • 21
    Segnan N,Senore C,Andreoni B,Aste H,Bonelli L,Crosta C,Ferraris R,Gasperoni S,Penna A,Risio M,Rossini FP,Sciallero S, et al. Baseline findings of the Italian multicenter randomized controlled trial of “once-only sigmoidoscopy”–SCORE. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 176372.
  • 22
    Seeff LC,Manninen DL,Dong FB,Chattopadhyay SK,Nadel MR,Tangka FK,Molinari NA. Is there endoscopic capacity to provide colorectal cancer screening to the unscreened population in the United States? Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 16619.
  • 23
    Mulhall BP,Veerappan GR,Jackson JL. Meta-analysis: computed tomographic colonography. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142: 63550.
  • 24
    van Dam J,Cotton P,Johnson CD,McFarland BG,Pineau BC,Provenzale D,Ransohoff D,Rex D,Rockey D,Wootton FT,III. AGA future trends report: CT colonography. Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 97084.
  • 25
    Taylor SA,Halligan S,Saunders BP,Bassett P,Vance M,Bartram CI. Acceptance by patients of multidetector CT colonography compared with barium enema examinations, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2003; 181: 91321.
  • 26
    Thomeer M,Bielen D,Vanbeckevoort D,Dymarkowski S,Gevers A,Rutgeerts P,Hiele M,Van Cutsem E,Marchal G. Patient acceptance for CT colonography: what is the real issue? Eur Radiol 2002; 12: 141015.
  • 27
    Heitman SJ,Manns BJ,Hilsden RJ,Fong A,Dean S,Romagnuolo J. Cost-effectiveness of computerized tomographic colonography versus colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. CMAJ 2005; 173: 87781.
  • 28
    Ladabaum U,Song K,Fendrick AM. Colorectal neoplasia screening with virtual colonoscopy: when, at what cost, and with what national impact? Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 2: 55463.
  • 29
    Sonnenberg A,Delco F,Bauerfeind P. Is virtual colonoscopy a cost-effective option to screen for colorectal cancer? Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 226874.
    Direct Link:
  • 30
    Pickhardt PJ,Hassan C,Laghi A,Zullo A,Kim DH,Morini S. Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening with computed tomography colonography: the impact of not reporting diminutive lesions. Cancer 2007; 109: 221321.
  • 31
    Schoenfeld P. Small and diminutive polyps: implications for colorectal cancer screening with computed tomography colonography. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 4: 2935.
  • 32
    Loeve F,Boer R,van Ballegooijen M,van Oortmarssen GJ,Habbema JDF. Final report MISCAN-colon microsimulation model for colorectal cancer: report to the National Cancer Institute Project No. NO1-CN55186. Department of Public Health, Erasmus University, 1998.
  • 33
    Loeve F,Boer R,van Oortmarssen GJ,van Ballegooijen M,Habbema JDF. The MISCAN-colon simulation model for the evaluation of colorectal cancer screening. Comput Biomed Res 1999; 32: 1333.
  • 34
    Loeve F,Brown ML,Boer R,van Ballegooijen M,van Oortmarssen GJ,Habbema JD. Endoscopic colorectal cancer screening: a cost-saving analysis [see comments]. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 55763.
  • 35
    Vogelaar I,van Ballegooijen M,Zauber AG,Boer R,Oortmarssen GJv,Loeve F,Habbema JDF. Model Profile of the MISCAN-colon microsimulation model for colorectal cancer. Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, 2004. Accessed at:
  • 36
    Morson B. The polyp-cancer sequence in the large bowel. Proc R Soc Med 1974; 67: 4517.
  • 37
    Muto T,Bussey HJ,Morson BC. The evolution of cancer of the colon and rectum. Cancer 1975; 36: 225170.
  • 38
    Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program ( SEER*Stat Database: Incidence - SEER 9 Regs Limited-Use, Nov 2002 Sub National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch, released April 2003, based on the November 2002 submission.
  • 39
    Arminski TC,McLean DW. Incidence and distribution of adenomatous polyps of the colon and rectum based on 1,000 autopsy examinations. Dis Colon Rectum 1964; 7: 24961.
  • 40
    Blatt L. Polyps of the colon and rectum: incidence and distribution. Dis Colon Rectum 1961; 4: 27782.
  • 41
    Bombi JA. Polyps of the colon in Barcelona, Spain. An autopsy study. Cancer 1988; 61: 14726.
  • 42
    Chapman I. Adenomatous polypi of large intestine: incidence and distribution. Ann Surg 1963; 157: 2236.
  • 43
    Clark JC,Collan Y,Eide TJ,Esteve J,Ewen S,Gibbs NM,Jensen OM,Koskela E,MacLennan R,Simpson JG, Stalsberg H,Zaridze DG. Prevalence of polyps in an autopsy series from areas with varying incidence of large-bowel cancer. Int J Cancer 1985; 36: 17986.
  • 44
    Jass JR,Young PJ,Robinson EM. Predictors of presence, multiplicity, size and dysplasia of colorectal adenomas. A necropsy study in New Zealand. Gut 1992; 33: 150814.
  • 45
    Johannsen LG,Momsen O,Jacobsen NO. Polyps of the large intestine in Aarhus, Denmark. An autopsy study. Scand J Gastroenterol 1989; 24: 799806.
  • 46
    Rickert RR,Auerbach O,Garfinkel L,Hammond EC,Frasca JM. Adenomatous lesions of the large bowel: an autopsy survey. Cancer 1979; 43: 184757.
  • 47
    Vatn MH,Stalsberg H. The prevalence of polyps of the large intestine in Oslo: an autopsy study. Cancer 1982; 49: 81925.
  • 48
    Williams AR,Balasooriya BA,Day DW. Polyps and cancer of the large bowel: a necropsy study in Liverpool. Gut 1982; 23: 83542.
  • 49
    Loeve F,Boer R,Zauber AG,Van Ballegooijen M,Van Oortmarssen GJ,Winawer SJ,Habbema JD. National Polyp Study data: evidence for regression of adenomas. Int J Cancer 2004; 111: 6339.
  • 50
    Vogelaar I,van Ballegooijen M,Schrag D,Boer R,Winawer SJ,Habbema JD,Zauber AG. How much can current interventions reduce colorectal cancer mortality in the U.S.? Mortality projections for scenarios of risk-factor modification, screening, and treatment. Cancer 2006; 107: 162433.
  • 51
    Pickhardt PJ,Choi JR,Hwang I,Schindler WR. Nonadenomatous polyps at CT colonography: prevalence, size distribution, and detection rates. Radiology 2004; 232: 78490.
  • 52
    Levin TR,Zhao W,Conell C,Seeff LC,Manninen DL,Shapiro JA,Schulman J. Complications of colonoscopy in an integrated health care delivery system. Ann Intern Med 2006; 145: 8806.
  • 53
    Lieberman DA,Weiss DG,Bond JH,Ahnen DJ,Garewal H,Chejfec G. Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 1628.
  • 54
    Pox C,Schmiegel W,Classen M. Current status of screening colonoscopy in Europe and in the United States. Endoscopy 2007; 39: 16873.
  • 55
    Regula J,Rupinski M,Kraszewska E,Polkowski M,Pachlewski J,Orlowska J,Nowacki MP,Butruk E. Colonoscopy in colorectal-cancer screening for detection of advanced neoplasia. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 186372.
  • 56
    Jentschura D,Raute M,Winter J,Henkel T,Kraus M,Manegold BC. Complications in endoscopy of the lower gastrointestinal tract. Therapy and prognosis. Surg Endosc 1994; 8: 6726.
  • 57
    Zauber AG,Lansdorp-Vogelaar I,Wilschut J,Knudsen AB,Ballegooijen Mv,Kuntz KM. Cost-effectiveness of DNA stool testing to screen for colorectal cancer, 2007. Accessed at:
  • 58
    Yabroff KR,Lamont EB,Mariotto A,Warren JL,Topor M,Meekins A,Brown ML. Cost of care for elderly cancer patients in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 2008; 100: 63041.
  • 59
    Winawer SJ,Zauber AG,Fletcher RH,Stillman JS,O'Brien MJ,Levin B,Smith RA,Lieberman DA,Burt RW,Levin TR,Bond JH,Brooks D, et al. Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after polypectomy: a consensus update by the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer and the American Cancer Society. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 187285.
  • 60
    Meissner HI,Breen N,Klabunde CN,Vernon SW. Patterns of colorectal cancer screening uptake among men and women in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15: 38994.
  • 61
    Swan J,Breen N,Coates RJ,Rimer BK,Lee NC. Progress in cancer screening practices in the United States: results from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Cancer 2003; 97: 152840.
  • 62
    Ransohoff DF. CON Immediate colonoscopy is not necessary in patients who have polyps smaller than 1 cm on computed tomographic colonography. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 19057; discussion 07–8.
    Direct Link:
  • 63
    Eide TJ. Risk of colorectal cancer in adenoma-bearing individuals within a defined population. Int J Cancer 1986; 38: 1736.
  • 64
    Stryker SJ,Wolff BG,Culp CE,Libbe SD,Illstrup DM,MacCarty RL. Natural history of untreated colonic polyps. Gastroenterology 1987; 93: 100913.
  • 65
    Koretz RL. Malignant polyps: are they sheep in wolves' clothing? Ann Intern Med 1993; 118: 638.
  • 66
    DiSario JA,Foutch PG,Mai HD,Pardy K,Manne RK. Prevalence and malignant potential of colorectal polyps in asymptomatic, average-risk men. Am J Gastroenterol 1991; 86: 9415.
  • 67
    Pickhardt PJ,Lee AD,McFarland EG,Taylor AJ. Linear polyp measurement at CT colonography: in vitro and in vivo comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional displays. Radiology 2005; 236: 8728.
  • 68
    Kim DH,Pickhardt PJ,Taylor AJ,Leung WK,Winter TC,Hinshaw JL,Gopal DV,Reichelderfer M,Hsu RH,Pfau PR. CT colonography versus colonoscopy for the detection of advanced neoplasia. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 140312.
  • 69
    Brenner DJ,Georgsson MA. Mass screening with CT colonography: should the radiation exposure be of concern? Gastroenterology 2005; 129: 32837.
  • 70
    Vijan S,Hwang I,Inadomi J,Wong RK,Choi JR,Napierkowski J,Koff JM,Pickhardt PJ. The cost-effectiveness of CT colonography in screening for colorectal neoplasia. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 38090.
    Direct Link:
  • 71
    Hara AK. The future of colorectal imaging: computed tomographic colonography. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2002; 31: 104560.
  • 72
    Iannaccone R,Laghi A,Catalano C,Mangiapane F,Lamazza A,Schillaci A,Sinibaldi G,Murakami T,Sammartino P,Hori M,Piacentini F,Nofroni I, et al. Computed tomographic colonography without cathartic preparation for the detection of colorectal polyps. Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 130011.
  • 73
    McFarland EG,Zalis ME. CT colonography: progress toward colorectal evaluation without catharsis. Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 16236.