• LOXL2;
  • epigenetic regulation;
  • breast cancer


A growing number of studies indicate the importance of the lysyl oxidase family in the promotion of epithelial neoplasms towards their more aggressive forms. However, the role of individual family members in carcinoma progression has yet to be ascertained. In this study, we analyzed LOXL2 expression in malignantly transformed MCF-7 and normal MCF-10A mammary epithelial cell line clones stably transduced with LOXL2 in vitro, and in normal and cancerous breast tissue samples in vivo. We found LOXL2 to be catalytically active in both MCF-7 and MCF-10 clones. LOXL2 overexpression promoted a more mesenchymal morphology in both cell types, but LOXL2-induced increase in migratory ability could only be established in MCF-7 clones. We demonstrated altered localization of the LOXL2 protein in breast cancer tissue compared to normal mammary tissue, and altered localization and processing of LOXL2 protein in breast cancer cell lines compared to normal cell lines, which may allow LOXL2 to interact with different intra and extracellular components during tumor progression. Results support the role of LOXL2 in selectively promoting a metastatic phenotype in breast tumor cells. Additional data suggest epigenetic molecular mechanisms in tumor specific regulation of LOXL2 expression that could be explored as a molecular target in the prevention of breast cancer progression. © 2009 UICC