• 1
    Renehan AG,Tyson M,Egger M,Heller RF,Zwahlen M. Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet 2008; 371: 56978.
  • 2
    Larsson SC,Mantzoros CS,Wolk A. Diabetes mellitus and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 2007; 121: 85662.
  • 3
    Kaaks R,Lukanova A. Energy balance and cancer: the role of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I. Proc Nutr Soc 2001; 60: 91106.
  • 4
    Ludwig DS. The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. JAMA 2002; 287: 241423.
  • 5
    Bjorck I,Granfeldt Y,Liljeberg H,Tovar J,Asp NG. Food properties affecting the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 59: 699S705S.
  • 6
    Augustin LS,Franceschi S,Jenkins DJ,Kendall CW,La Vecchia C. Glycemic index in chronic disease: a review. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002; 56: 104971.
  • 7
    Jenkins DJ,Wolever TM,Taylor RH,Barker H,Fielden H,Baldwin JM,Bowling AC,Newman HC,Jenkins AL,Goff DV. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34: 3626.
  • 8
    Salmeron J,Manson JE,Stampfer MJ,Colditz GA,Wing AL,Willett WC. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 1997; 277: 4727.
  • 9
    Gnagnarella P,Gandini S,La Vecchia C,Maisonneuve P. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 87: 1793801.
  • 10
    Barclay AW,Petocz P,McMillan-Price J,Flood VM,Prvan T,Mitchell P,Brand-Miller JC. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk—a meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 87: 62737.
  • 11
    Mulholland HG,Murray LJ,Cardwell CR,Cantwell MM. Dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Cancer 2008; 99: 11705.
  • 12
    Lajous M,Boutron-Ruault MC,Fabre A,Clavel-Chapelon F,Romieu I. Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 87: 138491.
  • 13
    Nielsen TG,Olsen A,Christensen J,Overvad K,Tjonneland A. Dietary carbohydrate intake is not associated with the breast cancer incidence rate ratio in postmenopausal Danish women. J Nutr 2005; 135: 1248.
  • 14
    Giles GG,Simpson JA,English DR,Hodge AM,Gertig DM,Macinnis RJ,Hopper JL. Dietary carbohydrate, fibre, glycaemic index, glycaemic load and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Int J Cancer 2006; 118: 18437.
  • 15
    Althuis MD,Fergenbaum JH,Garcia-Closas M,Brinton LA,Madigan MP,Sherman ME. Etiology of hormone receptor-defined breast cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004; 13: 155868.
  • 16
    Bergström L,Kylberg E,Hagman U,Erikson H,Bruce Å. The food composition database KOST: the National Food Administration's Information System for nutritive values of food. Vår Föda 1991; 43: 43947.
  • 17
    Foster-Powell K,Holt SH,Brand-Miller JC. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 556.
  • 18
    Messerer M,Johansson SE,Wolk A. The validity of questionnaire-based micronutrient intake estimates is increased by including dietary supplement use in Swedish men. J Nutr 2004; 134: 18005.
  • 19
    Mattsson B,Wallgren A. Completeness of the Swedish Cancer Register. Non-notified cancer cases recorded on death certificates in 1978. Acta Radiol Oncol 1984; 23: 30513.
  • 20
    Willett W,Stampfer MJ. Total energy intake: implications for epidemiologic analyses. Am J Epidemiol 1986; 124: 1727.
  • 21
    Cox DR,Oakes D. Analysis of survival data. London: Chapman and Hall, 1984.
  • 22
    Greenland S,Rothman KJ. Introduction to stratified analysis. In: RothmanKJ,GreenlandS, eds. Modern epidemiology, vol. 2. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven, 1998. 25379.
  • 23
    Key TJ. Glycemic index, hyperinsulinemia, and breast cancer risk. Ann Oncol 2001; 12: 15079.
  • 24
    Ferrari P,Slimani N,Ciampi A,Trichopoulou A,Naska A,Lauria C,Veglia F,Bueno-de-Mesquita HB,Ocke MC,Brustad M,Braaten T,Jose Tormo M, et al. Evaluation of under- and overreporting of energy intake in the 24-hour diet recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Public Health Nutr 2002; 5: 132945.
  • 25
    Lanzino M,Morelli C,Garofalo C,Panno ML,Mauro L,Ando S,Sisci D. Interaction between estrogen receptor alpha and insulin/IGF signaling in breast cancer. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2008; 8: 597610.
  • 26
    Oesterreich S,Zhang P,Guler RL,Sun X,Curran EM,Welshons WV,Osborne CK,Lee AV. Re-expression of estrogen receptor alpha in estrogen receptor alpha-negative MCF-7 cells restores both estrogen and insulin-like growth factor-mediated signaling and growth. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 57717.
  • 27
    Sieri S,Pala V,Brighenti F,Pellegrini N,Muti P,Micheli A,Evangelista A,Grioni S,Contiero P,Berrino F,Krogh V. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of breast cancer in an Italian prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 86: 11606.
  • 28
    Silvera SA,Jain M,Howe GR,Miller AB,Rohan TE. Dietary carbohydrates and breast cancer risk: a prospective study of the roles of overall glycemic index and glycemic load. Int J Cancer 2005; 114: 6538.
  • 29
    Cho E,Spiegelman D,Hunter DJ,Chen WY,Colditz GA,Willett WC. Premenopausal dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index, glycemic load, and fiber in relation to risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12: 11538.
  • 30
    Higginbotham S,Zhang ZF,Lee IM,Cook NR,Buring JE,Liu S. Dietary glycemic load and breast cancer risk in the Women's Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004; 13: 6570.
  • 31
    Jonas CR,McCullough ML,Teras LR,Walker-Thurmond KA,Thun MJ,Calle EE. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of incident breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12: 5737.
  • 32
    Holmes MD,Liu S,Hankinson SE,Colditz GA,Hunter DJ,Willett WC. Dietary carbohydrates, fiber, and breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 159: 7329.