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Keywords:

  • vegetable;
  • fruit;
  • case–control study;
  • breast cancer risk;
  • China

Abstract

The effect of vegetable and fruit consumption on breast cancer risk is controversial. We examined the association between vegetable and fruit intake and breast cancer risk in a hospital-based case–control study conducted in Guangdong, China. Four hundred and thirty-eight cases were frequency matched to 438 controls by age (5-year interval) and residence (rural/urban). Dietary intake was assessed by face-to-face interviews using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) after adjusting for various potential confounders. Total vegetable and fruit intake was found to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. The ORs of the highest quartile relative to the lowest quartile of total vegetable and fruit intake were 0.28 (95% CI 0.18–0.43) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.34–0.82), respectively. Consumption of individual vegetable and fruit groups such as dark green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, carrots and tomatoes, banana, watermelon/papaya/cantaloupe were all inversely and significantly related with breast cancer risk. An inverse association was also observed for vitamin A, carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, and fiber intake. These data indicate that greater intake of vegetables and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer among Chinese women residing in Guangdong. © 2009 UICC