• 1
    World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Washington, DC: AICR, 2007.
  • 2
    Brown LM,Swanson CA,Gridley G,Swanson GM,Schoenberg JB,Greenberg RS,Silverman DT,Pottern LM,Hayes RB,Schwartz AG,Liff JM,Fraumeni JF,Jr, et al. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus: role of obesity and diet. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995; 87: 1049.
  • 3
    Brown LM,Swanson CA,Gridley G,Swanson GM,Silverman DT,Greenberg RS,Hayes RB,Schoenberg JB,Pottern LM,Schwartz AG,Liff JM,Fraumeni JF,Jr. Dietary factors and the risk of squamous cell esophageal cancer among black and white men in the United States. Cancer Causes Control 1998; 9: 46774.
  • 4
    Chun OK,Chung SJ,Song WO. Estimated dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of U.S. adults. J Nutr 2007; 137: 124452.
  • 5
    Gu L,Kelm MA,Hammerstone JF,Beecher G,Holden J,Haytowitz D,Gebhardt S,Prior RL. Concentrations of proanthocyanidins in common foods and estimations of normal consumption. J Nutr 2004; 134: 61317.
  • 6
    Beecher GR. Overview of dietary flavonoids: nomenclature, occurrence and intake. J Nutr 2003; 133: 3248S3254S.
  • 7
    Nandakumar V,Singh T,Katiyar SK. Multi-targeted prevention and therapy of cancer by proanthocyanidins. Cancer Lett 2008; 269: 37887.
  • 8
    Ramos S. Cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy: dietary polyphenols and signaling pathways. Mol Nutr Food Res 2008; 52: 50726.
  • 9
    Holden JM,Bhagwat SQ,Haytowitz DB,Gebhardt SE,Dwyer JT,Peterson J,Beecher GR,Eldridge AL,Balentine D. Development of a database of critically evaluated flavonoids data: application of USDA's data quality evaluation system. J Food Comp Anal 2005; 18: 82944.
  • 10
    Rossi M,Garavello W,Talamini R,La Vecchia C,Franceschi S,Lagiou P,Zambon P,Dal Maso L,Bosetti C,Negri E. Flavonoids and risk of squamous cell esophageal cancer. Int J Cancer 2007; 120: 15604.
  • 11
    De Stefani E,Ronco A,Maendilaharsu M,Deneo-Pellegrini H. Diet and risk of cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract. II. Nutrients. Oral Oncol 1999; 35: 226.
  • 12
    Sun C-L,Yuan J-M,Lee M-J,Yang CS,Gao Y-T,Ross RK,Yu MC. Urinary tea polyphenols in relation to gastric and esophageal cancers: a prospective study of men in Shanghai, China. Carcinogenesis 2002; 23: 1497503.
  • 13
    Swanson CA,Gridley G,Greenberg RS,Schoenberg JB,Swanson GM,Brown LM,Hayes R,Silverman D,Pottern L. A comparison of diets of blacks and whites in three areas of the United States. Nutr Cancer 1993; 20: 15365.
  • 14
    Dresser CM. From nutrient data to data base for a health and nutrition examination survey: organization, coding, and values-real or imputed. In: Proceedings of the Eighth National Nutrient Databank Conference. Minneapolis, MN, July 25–27, 1983. Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service, 1984. 83 A.D.
  • 15
    Peterson J,Dwyer J. Citrus flavonoids promote health through decreasing cancer risk (poster). In: SaltosE, ed. Program Director Workshop for the National Research Initiative Bioactive Components for Optimal Health Program. Knoxville, TN: United Stated Department of Agriculture, Cooperative State Research Education and Extension Service, 2008.
  • 16
    U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. USDA database for the flavonoid content of selected foods, Release 2.1, 2007. Available at the Nutrient Data Laboratory web site:–1.pdf.
  • 17
    U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. USDA–Iowa State University database on the isoflavone content of foods, Release 1.4, 2007. Available at the Nutrient Data Laboratory web site:
  • 18
    U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. USDA database for the proanthocyanidin content of selected foods, USDA, 2004. Available at the Nutrient Data Laboratory web site:
  • 19
    Hu FB,Stampfer MJ,Rimm E,Ascherio A,Rosner BA,Spiegelman D,Willett WC. Dietary fat and coronary heart disease: a comparison of approaches for adjusting for total energy intake and modeling repeated dietary measurements. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 149: 53140.
  • 20
    Wang L-S,Stoner GD. Anthocyanins and their role in cancer prevention. Cancer Lett 2008; 269: 28190.
  • 21
    Banerjee S,Li Y,Wang Z,Sarkar FH. Multi-targeted therapy of cancer by genistein. Cancer Lett 2008; 69: 22642.
  • 22
    Kresty LA,Frankel WL,Hammond CD,Baird ME,Mele JM,Stoner GD,Fromkes JJ. Transitioning from preclinical to clinical chemopreventive assessments of lyophilized black raspberries: interim results show berries modulate markers of oxidative stress in Barrett's esophagus patients. Nutr Cancer 2006; 54: 14856.
  • 23
    Yanagihara K,Ito A,Toge T,Numoto M. Antiproliferative effects of isoflavones on human cancer cell lines established from the gastrointestinal tract. Cancer Res 1993; 53: 581521.
  • 24
    Fang MZ,Chen D,Sun Y,Jin Z,Christman JK,Yang CS. Reversal of hypermethylation and reactivation of p16Ink4a, RARβ, and MGMT genes by genistein and other isoflavones from soy. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11: 703341.
  • 25
    Freedman ND,Park Y,Subar AF,Hollenbeck AR,Leitzman MF,Schatzkin A,Abnet CC. Fruit and vegetable intake and esophageal cancer in a larger prospective cohort study. Int J Cancer 2007; 121: 275360.
  • 26
    Dwyer JT,Gardner J,Halvorsen K,Krall EA,Cohen A,Valadian I. Memory of food intake in the distant past. Am J Epidemiol 1989; 130: 103346.
  • 27
    Brown LM,Devesa SS,Fraumeni JF,Jr. Epidemiology of esophageal cancer. In: PosnerMC,VokesEE,WeichselbaumRR, eds. Cancer of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Hamilton/London: BC Decker, 2002 121.
  • 28
    Bergquist SM,Gertsson UE,Knuthsen P,Olsson ME. Flavonoids in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.): changes during plant growth and storage. J Agric Food Chem 2005; 53: 945964.
  • 29
    Miglio C,Chiavaro E,Visconti A,Fogliano V,Pellegrini N. Effects of different cooking methods on nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of selected vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 2008; 56: 13947.
  • 30
    Brown LM,Hoover R,Silverman D,Baris D,Hayes R,Swanson GM,Schoenberg J,Greenberg R,Liff J,Schwartz A,Dosemeci M,Pottern L, et al. Excess incidence of squamous cell esophageal cancer among US black men: role of social class and other risk factors. Am J Epidemiol 2001; 153: 11422.
  • 31
    Garro AJ,Lieber CS. Alcohol and cancer. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 1990; 30: 21949.
  • 32
    Scholz S,Williamson G. Interactions affecting the bioavailability of dietary polyphenols in vivo. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2007; 77: 22435.
  • 33
    Weisburger JH,Chung F-L. Mechanisms of chronic disease causation by nutritional factors and tobacco products and their prevention by tea polyphenols. Food Chem Toxicol 2002; 40: 114554.
  • 34
    Moon YJ,Wang X,Morris ME. Dietary flavonoids: effects on xenobiotic and carcinogen metabolism. Toxicol In Vitro 2006; 20: 187210.
  • 35
    Stan SD,Kar S,Stoner GD,Singh SV. Bioactive food components and cancer risk reduction. J Cell Biochem 2008; 104: 33956.