High-temperature beverages and foods and esophageal cancer risk—A systematic review

Authors

  • Farhad Islami,

    1. Digestive Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
    2. Lifestyle, Environment and Cancer Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France
    3. King's College London, Thames Cancer Registry, London, United Kingdom
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  • Paolo Boffetta,

    1. Lifestyle, Environment and Cancer Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France
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  • Jian-Song Ren,

    1. Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
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  • Leah Pedoeim,

    1. Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
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  • Dara Khatib,

    1. Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
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  • Farin Kamangar

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
    • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI, 6120 Executive Blvd., Room 3034, Bethesda, MD 20892-7232, USA
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    • Fax: +301-496-6829.


Abstract

Coffee, tea and maté may cause esophageal cancer (EC) by causing thermal injury to the esophageal mucosa. If so, the risk of EC attributable to thermal injury could be large in populations in which these beverages are commonly consumed. In addition, these drinks may cause or prevent EC via their chemical constituents. Therefore, a large number of epidemiologic studies have investigated the association of an indicator of amount or temperature of use of these drinks or other hot foods and beverages with risk of EC. We conducted a systematic review of these studies and report the results for amount and temperature of use separately. By searching PubMed and the ISI, we found 59 eligible studies. For coffee and tea, there was little evidence for an association between amount of use and EC risk; however, the majority of studies showed an increased risk of EC associated with higher drinking temperature which was statistically significant in most of them. For maté drinking, the number of studies was limited, but they consistently showed that EC risk increased with both amount consumed and temperature, and these 2 were independent risk factors. For other hot foods and drinks, over half of the studies showed statistically significant increased risks of EC associated with higher temperature of intake. Overall, the available results strongly suggest that high-temperature beverage drinking increases the risk of EC. Future studies will require standardized strategies that allow for combining data and results should be reported by histological subtypes of EC. © 2009 UICC

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