• 1
    Yang L,Parkin DM,Ferlay J,Li L,Chen Y. Estimates of cancer incidence in China for 2000 and projections for 2005. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 24350.
  • 2
    Lam WK,White NW,Chan-Yeung MM. Lung cancer epidemiology and risk factors in Asia and Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2004; 8: 104557.
  • 3
    Liu BQ,Peto R,Chen ZM,Boreham J,Wu YP,Li JY,Campbell TC,Chen JS. Emerging tobacco hazards in China, Part 1: Retrospective proportional mortality study of one million deaths. BMJ 1998; 317: 141122.
  • 4
    Yang GH,Ma JM,Liu N,Zhou LN. Smoking and passive smoking in Chinese, 2002. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2005; 26: 7783.
  • 5
    Chen JS,Campbell TC,Li JY,Peto R. Diet, life-style and mortality in China. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Cornell University Press, and People's Medical Publishing House, 1990.
  • 6
    Gao Y,Den J,Xiang Y,Ruan Z,Wang Z,Hu B,Guo M,Teng W,Han J,Zhang Y. Smoking, related cancers, and other diseases in shanghai: a 10-year prospective study. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 1999; 33: 58.
  • 7
    Kondo T,Hori Y,Yatsuya H,Tamakoshi K,Toyoshima H,Nishino Y,Seki N,Ito Y,Suzuki K,Ozasa K,Watanabe Y,Ando M, et al. Lung cancer mortality and body mass index in a Japanese cohort: findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study). Cancer Causes Control 2007; 18: 22934.
  • 8
    Tsai SP,Donnelly RP,Wendt JK. Obesity and mortality in a prospective study of a middle-aged industrial population. J Occup Environ Med 2006; 48: 227.
  • 9
    Kanashiki M,Sairenchi T,Saito Y,Ishikawa H,Satoh H,Sekizawa K. Body mass index and lung cancer: a case-control study of subjects participating in a mass-screening program. Chest 2005; 128: 14906.
  • 10
    Kabat GC,Wynder EL. Body mass index and lung cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 135: 76974.
  • 11
    Rauscher GH,Mayne ST,Janerich DT. Relation between body mass index and lung cancer risk in men and women never and former smokers. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 152: 50613.
  • 12
    Seidell JC,Verschuren WM,van Leer EM,Kromhout D. Overweight, underweight, and mortality. A prospective study of 48,287 men and women. Arch Intern Med 1996; 156: 95863.
  • 13
    Kark JD,Yaari S,Rasooly I,Goldbourt U. Are lean smokers at increased risk of lung cancer? The Israel Civil Servant Cancer Study. Arch Intern Med 1995; 155: 240916.
  • 14
    Henley SJ,Flanders WD,Manatunga A,Thun MJ. Leanness and lung cancer risk: fact or artifact? Epidemiology 2002; 13: 26876.
  • 15
    Drinkard CR,Sellers TA,Potter JD,Zheng W,Bostick RM,Nelson CL,Folsom AR. Association of body mass index and body fat distribution with risk of lung cancer in older women. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 142: 6007.
  • 16
    Chyou PH,Nomura AM,Stemmermann GN. A prospective study of weight, body mass index and other anthropometric measurements in relation to site-specific cancers. Int J Cancer 1994; 57: 3137.
  • 17
    Goodman MT,Wilkens LR. Relation of body size and the risk of lung cancer. Nutr Cancer 1993; 20: 17986.
  • 18
    Knekt P,Heliovaara M,Rissanen A,Aromaa A,Seppanen R,Teppo L,Pukkala E. Leanness and lung-cancer risk. Int J Cancer 1991; 49: 20813.
  • 19
    Jee SH,Yun JE,Park EJ,Cho ER,Park IS,Sull JW,Ohrr H,Samet JM. Body mass index and cancer risk in Korean men and women. Int J Cancer 2008; 123: 18926.
  • 20
    Eichholzer M,Bernasconi F,Jordan P,Stähelin HB. Body mass index and the risk of male cancer mortality of various sites: 17-year follow-up of the Basel cohort study. Swiss Med Wkly 2005; 135(1–2): 2733.
  • 21
    Kubík AK,Zatloukal P,Tomásek L,Pauk N,Havel L,Krepela E,Petruzelka L. Dietary habits and lung cancer risk among non-smoking women. Eur J Cancer Prev 2004; 13: 47180.
  • 22
    Kabat GC,Miller AB,Rohan TE. Body mass index and lung cancer risk in women. Epidemiology 2007; 18: 60712.
  • 23
    Kabat GC,Kim M,Hunt JR,Chlebowski RT,Rohan TE. Body mass index and waist circumference in relation to lung cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 168: 15869.
  • 24
    Niu SR,Yang GH,Chen ZM,Wang JL,Wang GH,He XZ,Schoepff H,Boreham J,Pan HC,Peto R. Emerging tobacco hazards in China, Part 2: early mortality results from a prospective study. BMJ 1998; 317: 142324.
  • 25
    Chen Z,Yang G,Zhou M,Smith M,Offer A,Ma J,Wang L,Pan H,Whitlock G,Collins R,Niu S,Peto R. Body mass index and mortality from ischaemic heart disease in a lean population: 10 year prospective study of 220,000 adult men. Int J Epidemiol 2006; 35: 14150.
  • 26
    Chinese Academy of Preventative Medicine. Annual report on Chinese diseases surveillance points. Beijing: Hua Xia Press, 1991.
  • 27
    Yang GH,Murray CJL,Zhang Z. Exploring adult mortality in China: levels patterns and causes. Beijing: Hua Xia Press, 1991.
  • 28
    Cox DR. Regression models and life-tables. J R Stat Soc B 1972; 34: 187220.
  • 29
    Yao HY,Shi LY. Meta-analysis of the risk factors on lung cancer in Chinese people. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2003; 24: 459.
  • 30
    Easton DF,Peto J,Babiker AG. Floating absolute risk: an alternative to relative risk in survival and case-control analysis avoiding an arbitrary reference group. Stat Med 1991; 10: 102535.
  • 31
    Flegal KM,Carroll MD,Ogden CL,Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2000. JAMA 2002; 288: 17237.
  • 32
    Seidell JC. The epidemiology of obesity. In: BjorntorpP, ed. International textbook of obesity. Chichester: John Wiley, 2001. 239.
  • 33
    Chen KX,Xu WL,Jia ZL,Yu M,Wang QS,Dong SF,Wang JF. Risk factors of lung cancer in Tianjin. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2003; 25: 57580.
  • 34
    Yu M,Rao K,Chen Y. A case-control study of the risk factors of lung cancer in Beijing. Tianjin. Shanghai. Chongqing metropolitan areas. Zhonghua. Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2000; 34: 22731.
  • 35
    Chen ZM,Xu Z,Collins R,Li WX,Peto R. Early health effects of the emerging tobacco epidemic in China. A 16-year prospective study. JAMA 1997; 278: 15004.
  • 36
    He Y,Taihing L,Shi Q,Huang J,Zhang F,Wan Z,Li L. A prospective study on smoking, quitting and mortality in a cohort of elderly in Xi'an. China Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2002; 23: 1869.
  • 37
    Liu Z. Smoking and lung cancer in China: combined analysis of eight case-control studies. Int J Epidemiol 1992; 21: 197201.
  • 38
    Doll R,Peto R,Boreham J,Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors. BMJ 2004; 328: 151927.
  • 39
    Olson JE,Yang P,Schmitz K,Vierkant RA,Cerhan JR,Sellers TA. Differential association of body mass index and fat distribution with three major histologic types of lung cancer: evidence from a cohort of older women. Am J Epidemiol 2002; 156: 60615.
  • 40
    Campuzano JC,Hernandez-Avila M,Jaakkola MS,Lazcano Ponce E,Kuri Morales P,Bautista P,Benowitz NL,Ceraso M,Blackford A,Samet JM. Determinants of salivary cotinine levels among current smokers in Mexico. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6: 9971008.
  • 41
    Jaakkola MS,Ma J,Yang G,Chin MF,Benowitz NL,Ceraso M,Samet JM. Determinants of salivary cotinine concentrations in Chinese male smokers. Prev Med 2003; 36: 28290.
  • 42
    Istvan JA,Nides MA,Buist AS,Greene P,Voelker H. Salivary cotinine, frequency of cigarette smoking, and body mass index: findings at baseline in the Lung Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 1994; 139: 62836.
  • 43
    Mizoue T,Kasai H,Kubo T,Tokunaga S. Leanness, smoking, and enhanced oxidative DNA damage. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15: 5825.
  • 44
    Bramer SL,Kallungal BA. Clinical considerations in study designs that use cotinine as a biomarker. Biomarkers 2003; 8: 187203.
  • 45
    Frayling TM,Timpson NJ,Weedon MN,Zeggini E,Freathy RM,Lindgren CM,Perry JR,Elliott KS,Lango H,Rayner NW,Shields B,Harries LW, et al. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity. Science 2007; 316: 88994.
  • 46
    McKay JD,Hung RJ,Gaborieau V,Boffetta P,Chabrier A,Byrnes G,Zaridze D,Mukeria A,Szeszenia-Dabrowska N,Lissowska J,Rudnai P,Fabianova E, et al. Lung cancer susceptibility locus at 5p15.33. Nat Genet 2008; 40: 14046.