• 1
    Qiu D, Kao PN. Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of triptolide, the principal active diterpenoid from the Chinese medicinal herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. Drugs R D. 2003; 4: 118.
  • 2
    Corson TW, Crews CM. Molecular understanding and modern application of traditional medicines: triumphs and trials. Cell 2007; 130: 76974.
  • 3
    Tao XL, Dong Y, Zhang NZ. A double-blind study of T2 (tablets of polyglycosides of Tripterygium wilfodii Hook in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 1987; 26: 399402, 44–5.
  • 4
    Tao X, Cush JJ, Garret M, Lipsky PE. A phase I study of ethyl acetate extract of the chinese antirheumatic herb Tripterygium wilfordii hook F in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2001; 28: 21607.
  • 5
    Tao X, Younger J, Fan FZ, Wang B, Lipsky PE. Benefit of an extract of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 173543.
  • 6
    Brinker AM, Ma J, Lipsky PE, Raskin I. Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of genus Tripterygium (Celastraceae). Phytochemistry 2007; 68: 73266.
  • 7
    Mao YP, Tao XL, Lipsky PE. Pharmacokinetics of triptolide. Development and application of a high performance liquid chromatographic method for quantitation of triptolide in plasma. J Liquid Chromatogr Relat Technol 1999; 22: 135566.
  • 8
    Shao F, Wang G, Xie H, Zhu X, Sun J, A J. Pharmacokinetic study of triptolide, a constituent of immunosuppressive Chinese herb medicine, in rats. Biol Pharm Bull 2007; 30: 7027.
  • 9
    Brinker AM, Raskin I. Determination of triptolide in root extracts of Tripterygium wilfordii by solid-phase extraction and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 2005; 1070: 6570.
  • 10
    Wu SX, Guo NR. Clinical observation on effect of triptolide tablet in treating patients with psoriasis vulgaris. Chin J Integr Med 2005; 11: 1478.
  • 11
    Song HX, Gong J, Chen W. Effect of triptolide on urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2005; 25: 4168.
  • 12
    Peng A, Gu Y, Lin SY. Herbal treatment for renal diseases. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2005; 34: 4451.
  • 13
    Kupchan SM, Court WA, Dailey RG,Jr, Gilmore CJ, Bryan RF. Triptolide and tripdiolide, novel antileukemic diterpenoid triepoxides from Tripterygium wilfordii. J Am Chem Soc 1972; 94: 71945.
  • 14
    Kiviharju TM, Lecane PS, Sellers RG, Peehl DM. Antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities of triptolide (PG490), a natural product entering clinical trials, on primary cultures of human prostatic epithelial cells. Clin Cancer Res 2002; 8: 266674.
  • 15
    Chang WT, Kang JJ, Lee KY, Wei K, Anderson E, Gotmare S, Ross JA, Rosen GD. Triptolide and chemotherapy cooperate in tumor cell apoptosis. A role for the p53 pathway. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 22217.
  • 16
    Lou YJ, Jin J. Triptolide down-regulates bcr-abl expression and induces apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Leuk Lymphoma 2004; 45: 3736.
  • 17
    Yang S, Chen J, Guo Z, Xu XM, Wang L, Pei XF, Yang J, Underhill CB, Zhang L. Triptolide inhibits the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. Mol Cancer Ther 2003; 2: 6572.
  • 18
    Fidler JM, Li K, Chung C, Wei K, Ross JA, Gao M, Rosen GD. PG490–88, a derivative of triptolide, causes tumor regression and sensitizes tumors to chemotherapy. Mol Cancer Ther 2003; 2: 85562.
  • 19
    Frese S, Pirnia F, Miescher D, Krajewski S, Borner MM, Reed JC, Schmid RA. PG490-mediated sensitization of lung cancer cells to Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis requires activation of ERK2. Oncogene 2003; 22: 542735.
  • 20
    Cui GH, Chen WH, Xue KY, Liu F, Chen Y. Effects of triptolide and TNF-α on the expression of VEGF in Raji cells and on angiogenesis in ECV 304 cells. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2006; 14: 100812.
  • 21
    Ding Y, Zhang J, Zhao QL, Hou LJ, Wang QL, Wang SR. Effect of triptolide on expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activators in vascular endothelial cells. Ai Zheng 2005; 24: 8015.
  • 22
    He MF, Liu L, Ge W, Shaw PC, Jiang RW, Wu LW, But PPH. Antiangiogenic activity of Tripterygium wilfordii and its terpenoids. J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 121: 618.
  • 23
    Jaffe EA, Nachman RL, Becker CG, Minick CR. Culture of human endothelial cells derived from umbilical veins. Identification by morphologic and immunologic criteria. J Clin Invest 1973; 52: 274556.
  • 24
    Hu HT, Huang YH, Chang YA, Lee CK, Jiang MJ, Wu LW. Tie2-R849W mutant in venous malformations chronically activates a functional STAT1 to modulate gene expression. J Invest Dermatol 2008; 128: 232533.
  • 25
    Wang Y, Ge W. Spatial expression patterns of activin and its signaling system in the zebrafish ovarian follicle: evidence for paracrine action of activin on the oocytes. Biol Reprod 2003; 69: 19982006.
  • 26
    Passaniti A, Taylor RM, Pili R, Guo Y, Long PV, Haney JA, Pauly RR, Grant DS, Martin GR. A simple, quantitative method for assessing angiogenesis and antiangiogenic agents using reconstituted basement membrane, heparin, and fibroblast growth factor. Lab Invest 1992; 67: 51928.
  • 27
    Mao YP, Tao XL, Lipsky PE. Analysis of the stability and degradation products of triptolide. J Pharm Pharmacol 2000; 52: 312.
  • 28
    Taraboletti G, Giavazzi R. Modelling approaches for angiogenesis. Eur J Cancer 2004; 40: 8819.
  • 29
    Zhou BN, Johnson RK, Mattern MR, Fisher PW, Kingston DG. The first naturally occurring tie2 kinase inhibitor. Org Lett 2001; 3: 40479.
  • 30
    Fan TP, Yeh JC, Leung KW, Yue PY, Wong RN. Angiogenesis: from plants to blood vessels. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2006; 27: 297309.
  • 31
    Folkman J. Tumor angiogenesis: therapeutic implications. N Engl J Med 1971; 285: 1826.
  • 32
    Bhat TA, Singh RP. Tumor angiogenesis—a potential target in cancer chemoprevention. Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 46: 133445.
  • 33
    Yancopoulos GD, Davis S, Gale NW, Rudge JS, Wiegand SJ, Holash J. Vascular-specific growth factors and blood vessel formation. Nature 2000; 407: 2428.
  • 34
    Petrelli A, Giordano S. From single- to multi-target drugs in cancer therapy: when aspecificity becomes an advantage. Curr Med Chem 2008; 15: 42232.
  • 35
    Maisonpierre PC, Suri C, Jones PF, Bartunkova S, Wiegand SJ, Radziejewski C, Compton D, McClain J, Aldrich TH, Papadopoulos N, Daly TJ, Davis S, et al. Angiopoietin-2, a natural antagonist for Tie2 that disrupts in vivo angiogenesis. Science 1997; 277: 5560.
  • 36
    Holash J, Maisonpierre PC, Compton D, Boland P, Alexander CR, Zagzag D, Yancopoulos GD, Wiegand SJ. Vessel cooption, regression, and growth in tumors mediated by angiopoietins and VEGF. Science 1999; 284: 19948.
  • 37
    Ferrara N, Davis-Smyth T. The biology of vascular endothelial growth factor. Endocr Rev 1997; 18: 425.
  • 38
    Davis S, Aldrich TH, Jones PF, Acheson A, Compton DL, Jain V, Ryan TE, Bruno J, Radziejewski C, Maisonpierre PC, Yancopoulos GD. Isolation of angiopoietin-1, a ligand for the TIE2 receptor, by secretion-trap expression cloning. Cell 1996; 87: 11619.
  • 39
    Suri C, Jones PF, Patan S, Bartunkova S, Maisonpierre PC, Davis S, Sato TN, Yancopoulos GD. Requisite role of angiopoietin-1, a ligand for the TIE2 receptor, during embryonic angiogenesis. Cell 1996; 87: 117180.
  • 40
    Thurston G. Role of Angiopoietins and Tie receptor tyrosine kinases in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Cell Tissue Res 2003; 314: 618.
  • 41
    Siemeister G, Schirner M, Weindel K, Reusch P, Menrad A, Marme D, Martiny-Baron G. Two independent mechanisms essential for tumor angiogenesis: inhibition of human melanoma xenograft growth by interfering with either the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor pathway or the Tie-2 pathway. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 318591.
  • 42
    Miyazaki Y, Matsunaga S, Tang J, Maeda Y, Nakano M, Philippe RJ, Shibahara M, Liu W, Sato H, Wang L, Nolte RT. Novel 4-amino-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as Tie-2 and VEGFR2 dual inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2005; 15: 22037.
  • 43
    Millauer B, Longhi MP, Plate KH, Shawver LK, Risau W, Ullrich A, Strawn LM. Dominant-negative inhibition of Flk-1 suppresses the growth of many tumor types in vivo. Cancer Res 1996; 56: 161520.
  • 44
    Casanovas O, Hicklin DJ, Bergers G, Hanahan D. Drug resistance by evasion of antiangiogenic targeting of VEGF signaling in late-stage pancreatic islet tumors. Cancer Cell 2005; 8: 299309.
  • 45
    Wang B, Ma L, Tao X, Lipsky PE. Triptolide, an active component of the Chinese herbal remedy Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, inhibits production of nitric oxide by decreasing inducible nitric oxide synthase gene transcription. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 29953003.
  • 46
    Yao J, Zhang L, Zhao X, Hu L, Jiang Z. Simultaneous determination of triptolide, wilforlide A and triptonide in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Biol Pharm Bull 2006; 29: 14836.
  • 47
    Yao J, Jiang Z, Duan W, Huang J, Zhang L, Hu L, He L, Li F, Xiao Y, Shu B, Liu C. Involvement of mitochondrial pathway in triptolide-induced cytotoxicity in human normal liver L-02 cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2008; 31: 5927.
  • 48
    Ni B, Jiang Z, Huang X, Xu F, Zhang R, Zhang Z, Tian Y, Wang T, Zhu T, Liu J, Zhang L. Male reproductive toxicity and toxicokinetics of triptolide in rats. Arzneimittelforschung 2008; 58: 67380.
  • 49
    Noonan DM, Benelli R, Albini A. Angiogenesis and cancer prevention: a vision. Recent Results Cancer Res 2007; 174: 21924.
  • 50
    Su Y, Yang S, Xiao Z, Wang W, Okunieff P, Zhang L. Triptolide alter smitochondrial functions. In: MaguireDJB, DuaneF, HarrisonDK, eds.Advances in experiment medicine and biology. Oxygen transport to tissue XXVIII, Vol. 599. New York: Plenum, NY, 2007. 13946.