• 1
    Solomon D,Davey D,Kurman R,Moriarty A,O'Connor D,Prey M,Raab S,Sherman ME,Wilbur D,Wright TC,Young N. The 2001 Bethesda System: terminology for reporting results of cervical cytology. JAMA 2002; 287: 21149.
  • 2
    Herbert A,Bergeron C,Wiener H,Schenck U,Klinkhamer PJ,Arbyn M. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for cervical cytology terminology. Cytopathology 2007; 18: 2139.
  • 3
    Wright TC,Jr.,Massad LS,Dunton CJ,Spitzer M,Wilkinson EJ,Solomon D. 2006 Consensus Guidelines for the Management of Women With Abnormal Cervical Screening Tests. J Low Genit Tract Dis 2007; 11: 20122.
  • 4
    Morrison AS. Screening in Chronic Disease. 1992; 2: 1254. Oxford University Press, Inc.1–254.
  • 5
    Arbyn M,Kyrgiou M,Simoens C,Raifu AO,Koliopoulos G,Martin-Hirsch P,Prendiville W,Paraskevaidis E. Peri-natal mortality and other severe adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a meta-analysis. BMJ 2008; 337:a1284: 111.
  • 6
    Arbyn M,Dillner J,Schenck U,Nieminen P,Weiderpass E,Da Silva D,Jordan J,Ronco G,McGoogan E,Patnick J,Sparen P,Herbert A,Bergeron C. Chapter 3: Methods for Screening and Diagnosis. In: ArbynM,AnttilaA,JordanJ,RoncoG,SchenckU,SegnanN,WienerH,DanielJ,von KarsaL,European Commission, eds. European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008, 69152.
  • 7
    Hakama M,Chamberlain J,Day NE,Miller AB,Prorok PC. Evaluation of screening programmes for gynaecological cancer. Br J Cancer 1985; 52: 66973.
  • 8
    van Oortmarssen GJ,Habbema JD. Epidemiological evidence for age-dependent regression of pre-invasive cervical cancer. Br J Cancer 1991; 64: 55965.
  • 9
    McCredie MR,Sharples KJ,Paul C,Baranyai J,Medley G,Jones RW,Skegg DC. Natural history of cervical neoplasia and risk of invasive cancer in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol 2008; 9: 42534.
  • 10
    van Oortmarssen GJ,Habbema JDF,van Ballegooijen M. Predicting mortality from cervical cancer after negative smear test results. BMJ 1992; 305: 44951.
  • 11
    Day N,Moss S,Berrino F,Choi NW,Clarke EA,Döbrössy L,Geirsson G,Habbema DF,Hakama M,Hougen A,Johannesson G,Langmark F,Macgregor JE,Magnus K,Malker B,Jensen OM,Nelson NA,Parkin DM,Pettersson F,Poll P,Prorok PC,Raymond L,van Oortmarssen GJ. Screening for squamous cervical cancer: duration of low risk after negative results of cervical cytology and its implication for screening policies. BMJ 1986; 293: 65964.
  • 12
    Day NE. Screening for cancer of the cervix. J Epidemiol Community Health 1989; 43: 1036.
  • 13
    Nanda K,McCrory DC,Myers ER,Bastian LA,Hasselblad V,Hickey JD,Matchar DB. Accuracy of the Papanicolaou Test in Screening for and Follow-up of Cervical Cytologic Abnormalities: A Systematic Review. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 8109.
  • 14
    Arbyn M,Bergeron C,Klinkhamer P,Martin-Hirsch P,Siebers AG,Bulten J. Liquid compared with conventional cervical cytology: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2008; 111: 16777.
  • 15
    Arbyn M,Cuzick J. International agreement to join forces in synthesizing evidence on new methods for cervical cancer prevention. Cancer Lett 2009; 278: 12.
  • 16
    Zhu X,Lv J,Yu L,Zhu X,Wu J,Zou S,Jiang S. Proteomic identification of differentially-expressed proteins in squamous cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2009; 112: 24856.
  • 17
    Wentzensen N,Sherman ME,Schiffman M,Wang SS. Utility of methylation markers in cervical cancer early detection: Appraisal of the state-of-the-science. Gynecol Oncol 2009; 112: 2939.
  • 18
    Siddiqi AM,Li H,Faruque F,Williams W,Lai K,Hughson M,Bigler S,Beach J,Johnson W. Use of hyperspectral imaging to distinguish normal, precancerous, and cancerous cells. Cancer 2008; 114: 1321.
  • 19
    Cardenas-Turanzas M,Freeberg JA,Benedet JL,Atkinson EN,Cox DD,Richards-Kortum R,MacAulay C,Follen M,Cantor SB. The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we? Gynecol Oncol 2007; 107: S138S146.
  • 20
    Davies P,Arbyn M,Dillner J,Kitchener HC,Ronco G,Hakama M. A report on the current status of European research on the use of human papillomavirus testing for primary cervical cancer screening. Int J Cancer 2006; 118: 7916.
  • 21
    Pagliusi SR,Teresa AM. Efficacy and other milestones for human papillomavirus vaccine introduction. Vaccine 2004; 23: 56978.
  • 22
    Wilson JMG,Jungner G. Principles and practice of screening for disease. 1968;Public Health Papers 34. Geneva, World Health Organisation.
  • 23
    Ostor AG. Natural history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a critical review. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1993; 12: 18692.
  • 24
    Holowaty P,Miller AB,Rohan T,To T. Natural History of Dysplasia of the Uterine Cervix. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999; 91: 2528.
  • 25
    Stoler MH,Schiffman MA. Interobserver reproducibility of cervical cytologic and histologic interpretations. JAMA 2001; 285: 15005.
  • 26
    Schiffman MA,Herrero R,Desalle R,Hildesheim A,Wacholder S,Rodriguez AC,Bratti MC,Sherman ME,Morales J,Guillen D,Alfaro M,Hutchinson M,Wright TC,Solomon D,Chen Z,Schussler J,Castle PE,Burk RD. The carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus types reflects viral evolution. Virology 2005; 337: 7684.
  • 27
    Sherman ME,Schiffman MA,Cox JT. Effects of age and human papilloma viral load on colposcopy triage: data from the randomised atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade intraepithelial lesion triage study (ALTS). J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 1027.
  • 28
    Sherman ME,Wang SS,Tarone R,Rich L,Schiffman MA. Histopathologic extent of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 lesions in the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion trage study: implications for subject safety and lead-time bias. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12: 3729.
  • 29
    Carreon JD,Sherman ME,Guillen D,Solomon D,Herrero R,Jeronimo J,Wacholder S,Rodriguez AC,Morales J,Hutchinson M,Burk RD,Schiffman M. CIN2 is a much less reproducible and less valid diagnosis than CIN3: results from a histological review of population-based cervical samples. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2007; 26: 4416.
  • 30
    Castle PE,Schiffman M,Wheeler CM,Solomon D. Evidence for Frequent Regression of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia-Grade 2. Obstet Gynecol 2009; 113: 1825.
  • 31
    Bossuyt PM,Reitsma JB,Bruns DE,Gatsonis CA,Glasziou PP,Irwig LM,Lijmer JG,Moher D,Rennie D,de Vet HC. Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: the STARD initiative. BMJ 2003; 326: 414.
  • 32
    Whiting P,Rutjes AWS,Reitsma JB,Bossuyt PM,Kleijnen J. The development of QUADAS : a tool for the quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy included in systematic reviews. BMC Med Res Methodol 2003; 3: 113.
  • 33
    Begg CB,Greenes RA. Assessment of diagnostic tests when disease verification is subject to selection bias. Biometrics 1983; 39: 20715.
  • 34
    Choi BC. Sensitivity and specificity of a single diagnostic test in the presence of work-up bias. J Clin Epidemiol 1992; 45: 5816.
  • 35
    Irwig L,Glasziou PP,Berry G,Chock C,Mock P,Simpson JM. Efficient Study Designs to Assess the Accuracy of Screening Tests. Am J Epidemiol 1994; 140: 75969.
  • 36
    Pepe MS, The Statistical Evaluation of Medical Tests for Classification and Prediction. Oxford: Oxford Universitty Press, 2003. 318p.
  • 37
    Ratnam S,Franco EL,Ferenczy A. Human papillomavirus testing for primary screening of cervical cancer precursors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000; 9: 94551.
  • 38
    Schatzkin A,Connor RJ,Taylor PR,Bunnag B. Comparing new and old screening tests when a reference procedure cannot be performed on all screenees. Example of automated cytometry for early detection of cervical cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1987; 125: 6728.
  • 39
    Chock C,Irwig I,Berry G,Glasziou P. Comparing dichotomous screening tests when individuals negative on both tests are not verified. J Clin Epidemiol 1997; 50: 12117.
  • 40
    Gaffikin L,McGrath J,Arbyn M,Blumenthal P. Avoiding verification bias in screening test evaluation in resource poor settings; a case study from Zimbabwe. Clin Trials 2008; 5: 496503.
  • 41
    Pretorius RG,Zhang X,Belinson JL,Zhang WH,Ren SD,Bao YP,Qiao YL. Distribution of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2, 3 and cancer on the uterine cervix. J Low Genit Tract Dis 2006; 10: 4550.
  • 42
    Gaffikin L,McGrath JA,Arbyn M,Blumenthal PD. Accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid as a cervical cancer test validated using Latent Class Analysis. BMC Med Res Methodol 2007; 7: 110.
  • 43
    Arbyn M,Sankaranarayanan R,Muwonge R,Keita N,Dolo A,Gombe Mbalawa C,Nouhou H,Sankande B,Wesley R,Somanathan T,Sharma A,Shastri S,Basu P. Pooled analysis of the accuracy of five cervical cancer screening tests assessed in eleven studies in Africa and India. Int J Cancer 2008; 123: 15360.
  • 44
    Gage JC,Hanson VW,Abbey K,Dippery S,Gardner S,Kubota J,Schiffman M,Solomon D,Jeronimo J. Number of cervical biopsies and sensitivity of colposcopy. Obstet Gynecol 2006; 108: 26472.
  • 45
    Pretorius RG,Kim RJ,Belinson JL,Elson P,Qiao YL. Inflation of sensitivity of cervical cancer screening tests secondary to correlated error in colposcopy. J Low Genit Tract Dis 2006; 10: 59.
  • 46
    Jeronimo J,Schiffman M. Colposcopy at a crossroads. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006; 195: 34953.
  • 47
    Jeronimo J,Massad LS,Castle PE,Wacholder S,Schiffman M. Interobserver agreement in the evaluation of digitized cervical images. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 110: 83340.
  • 48
    Massad LS,Jeronimo J,Schiffman M. Interobserver agreement in the assessment of components of colposcopic grading. Obstet Gynecol 2008; 111: 127984.
  • 49
    Pretorius RG,Zhang WH,Belinson JL,Huang MN,Wu LY,Zhang X,Qiao YL. Colposcopically directed biopsy, random cervical biopsy, and endocervical curettage in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II or worse. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 4304.
  • 50
    Wentzensen N,Schiffman M,Dunn T,Zuna R,Walker J,Allen R,Zhang R,Sherman M,Wacholder S,Jeronimo J,Gold M,Wang S. A study of HPV genotype distribution, cytology, and histopathology among 1700 women referred to colposcopy in Oklahoma: implications for disease classification. Int J Cancer 2008; 124.
  • 51
    Anttila A,Ronco G,Lynge E,Fender M,Arbyn M,Baldauf JJ,Patnick J,Mc Googan E,Hakama M,Miller A. Chapter 2: Epidemiological Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. In: ArbynM,AnttilaA,JordanJ,RoncoG,SchenckU,SegnanN,WienerH,DanielJ,von KarsaL,European Commission, eds. European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008; 1152.
  • 52
    Sasieni P,Adams J,Cuzick J. Benefit of cervical screening at different ages: evidence from the UK audit of screening histories. Br J Cancer 2003; 89: 8893.
  • 53
    Andrae B,Kemetli L,Sparen P,Silfverdal L,Strander B,Ryd W,Dillner J,Törnberg S. Screening-Preventable Cervical Cancer Risks: Evidence From a Nationwide Audit in Sweden. J Natl Cancer Inst 2008; 100: 6229.
  • 54
    Moher D,Schulz KF,Altman D. The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials. JAMA 2001; 285: 198791.
  • 55
    Moher D,Cook DJ,Eastwood S,Olkin I,Rennie D,Stroup DF. Improving the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials: the QUOROM statement. Lancet 1999; 354: 1896900.
  • 56
    Harbord RM,Deeks JJ,Egger M,Whiting P,Sterne JA. A unification of models for meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies. Biostatistics 2007; 8: 23951.
  • 57
    Pepe MS,Etzioni R,Feng Z,Potter JD,Thompson ML,Thornquist M,Winget M,Yasui Y. Phases of biomarker development for early detection of cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93: 105461.
  • 58
    Arbyn M,Andersson K,Bergeron C,Bogers JP,von Knebel-Doeberitz M,Dillner J. Chapter 16: Cervical Cytology Biobanks as a Resource for Molecular Epidemiology. Methods in Biobanking. Tutowa (New Jersey, USA): The Humana Press Inc, 2009, in-press.
  • 59
    Pepe MS,Feng Z,Janes H,Bossuyt PM,Potter JD. Pivotal evaluation of the accuracy of a biomarker used for classification or prediction: standards for study design. J Natl Cancer Inst 2008; 100: 14328.
  • 60
    ASCUS-LSIL Triage Study Group. A randomized trial on the management of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cytology interpretations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 188: 1393400.
  • 61
    Arbyn M,Martin-Hirsch P,Buntinx F,Van Ranst M,Paraskevaidis E,Dillner J. Triage of women with equivocal or low-grade cervical cytology results. A meta-analysis of the HPV test positivity rate. J Cell Mol Med 2009; 13: 64859.
  • 62
    Arbyn M,Sasieni P,Meijer CJ,Clavel C,Koliopoulos G,Dillner J. Chapter 9: Clinical applications of HPV testing: a summary of meta-analyses. Vaccine 2006; 24 Suppl 3: S3-7889.
  • 63
    Naucler P,Ryd W,Tornberg S,Strand A,Wadell G,Elfgren K,Radberg T,Strander B,Forslund O,Hansson BG,Rylander E,Dillner J. Human papillomavirus and Papanicolaou tests to screen for cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 158997.
  • 64
    Bulkmans N,Berkhof J,Rozendaal L,van Kemenade F,Boeke A,Bulk S,Voorhorst F,Verheijen R,van Groningen K,Boon M,Ruitinga W,van Ballegooijen M,Snijders P,Meijer C. Human papillomavirus DNA testing for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and cancer: 5-year follow-up of a randomised controlled implementation trial. Lancet 2007; 370: 796802.
  • 65
    Ronco G,Segnan N,Gillio-Tos A,Rizzolo R,Confortini M,Carozzi F. Detection rate of high grade CIN 3 years after normal cytology and after normal HPV testing: preliminary follow up results from phase 1 of the NTCC randomised study. 2007. Beijing, Proceedings 24th International Papillomavirus Conference, 3–9 November, 2007.
  • 66
    Sankaranarayanan R,Nene BM,Shastri SS,Jayant K,Muwonge R,Budukh AM,Hingmire S,Malvi SG,Thorat R,Kothari A,Chinoy R,Kelkar R,Kane S,Desai S,Keskar VR,Rajeshwarkar R,Panse N,Dinshaw KA. HPV screening for cervical cancer in rural India. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 138594.
  • 67
    Cuzick J,Szarewski A,Cubie H,Hulman G,Kitchener HC,Luesley D,McGoogan E,Menon U,Terry G,Edwards R,Brooks C,Desai M,Gie C,Ho L,Jacobs I,Pickles C,Sasieni P. Management of women who test positive for high-risk types of human papillomavirus: the HART study. Lancet 2003; 362: 18716.
  • 68
    Naucler P,Ryd W,Tornberg S,Strand A,Wadell G,Elfgren K,Radberg T,Strander B,Forslund O,Hansson BG,Hagmar B,Johansson B,Rylander E,Dillner J. Efficacy of HPV DNA testing with cytology triage and/or repeat HPV DNA testing in primary cervical cancer screening. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009; 8898.
  • 69
    Cuschieri K,Wentzensen N. Human Papillomavirus mRNA and p16 Detection as Biomarkers for the Improved Diagnosis of Cervical Neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17: 253645.
  • 70
    Lie AK,Kristensen G. Human papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNA testing as a predictive marker for cervical carcinoma. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2008; 8: 40515.
  • 71
    Arbyn M,Buntinx F,Van Ranst M,Paraskevaidis E,Martin-Hirsch P,Dillner J. Virologic versus cytologic triage of women with equivocal Pap smears: a meta-analysis of the accuracy to detect high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004; 96: 28093.
  • 72
    Tsoumpou I,Arbyn M,Kyrgiou M,Wentzensen N,Koliopoulos G,Martin-Hirsch P,Malamou-Mitsi V,Paraskevaidis E. p16INK4a immunostaining in cytological and histological specimens from the uterine cervix: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Treat Rev 2009; 35: 21020.
  • 73
    Wentzensen N,Bergeron C,Cas F,Vinokurova S,von Knebel DM. Triage of women with ASCUS and LSIL cytology: use of qualitative assessment of p16INK4a positive cells to identify patients with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer 2007; 111: 5866.
  • 74
    Carozzi F,Confortini M,Palma PD,Del Mistro A,Gillio-Tos A,De Marco L,Giorgi-Rossi P,Pontenani G,Rosso S,Sani C,Sintoni C,Segnan N,Zorzi M,Cuzick J,Rizzolo R,Ronco G. Use of p16-INK4A overexpression to increase the specificity of human papillomavirus testing: a nested substudy of the NTCC randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2008; 9: 93745.
  • 75
    Siebers AG,Klinkhamer P,Arbyn M,Raifu AO,Masuger LFAG,Bulten J. Cytological detection of cervical abnormalities using a liquid-based compared with conventional cytology: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2008; 112: 132734.
  • 76
    Ronco G,Cuzick J,Pierotti P,Cariaggi MP,Dalla PP,Naldoni C,Ghiringhello B,Giorgi-Rossi P,Minucci D,Parisio F,Pojer A,Schiboni ML,Sintoni C,Zorzi M,Segnan N,Confortini M. Accuracy of liquid based versus conventional cytology: overall results of new technologies for cervical cancer screening: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2007; 335: 28.
  • 77
    Meijer CJLM,Castle PE,Hesselink AT,Franco EL,Ronco G,Arbyn M,Bosch FX,Cuzick J,Dillner J,Heideman DA,Snijders PJ. Guidelines for human papillomavirus DNA test requirements for primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older. Int J Cancer 2009; 124: 51620.
  • 78
    Arbyn M,Paraskevaidis E,Martin-Hirsch P,Prendiville W,Dillner J. Clinical utility of HPV DNA detection: triage of minor cervical lesions, follow-up of women treated for high-grade CIN. An update of pooled evidence. Gynecol Oncol 2005; 99 ( Suppl 3): 711.
  • 79
    Franco EL,Cuzick J. Cervical cancer screening following prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination. Vaccine 2008; 26 Suppl 1: A16A23.
  • 80
    Ronco G,Rossi PG. New paradigms in cervical cancer prevention: opportunities and risks. BMC Womens Health 2008; 8: 23.