• cancer;
  • childhood;
  • adolescent;
  • incidence;
  • population-based cancer registry


The Brazilian Population-Based Cancer Registry (PBCR) was started in 1967; today there are 20 PBCRs in Brazil. We report the first descriptive analysis of the incidence of childhood cancer based on data from 14 PBCRs, corresponding to 15% of the child and adolescent population in Brazil. Data were obtained from registry databases, including information on population coverage and data quality indicators. The International Classification of Childhood Cancer was used. Age-adjusted rates were calculated by world population. Incidence by cancer registry, age, sex, and cancer type were calculated per 1,000,000 children. Age-adjusted rates per 1,000,000 children/adolescents ranged from 92 to 220 among the 14 PBCRs. The principal groups of cancers were leukemia, lymphoma and central nervous tumors. The median incidence rate of childhood cancer in the 14 PBCRs was 154.3 per million; children 1–4 years of age had the highest incidence rates. The Brazilian PBCRs provide important information about pediatric cancer incidence in an emerging country. The observed incidence rates of childhood leukemia were similar to previous reported rates, and the age-specific incidence rates of retinoblastoma (0–4 years of age) were higher than those for developed countries. These data can be used as baseline incidence rates of childhood and adolescent cancer in Brazil in future epidemiological studies.