SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Cairns J. Mutation selection and the natural history of cancer. Nature 1975; 255: 197200.
  • 2
    Bernards R, Weinberg RA. A progression puzzle. Nature 2002; 418: 823.
  • 3
    Weigelt B, Peterse JL, van ’t Veer LJ. Breast cancer metastasis: markers and models. Nat Rev Cancer 2005; 5: 591602.
  • 4
    Klein CA. Parallel progression of primary tumours and metastases. Nat Rev Cancer 2009; 9: 30212.
  • 5
    Scheel C, Onder T, Karnoub A, Weinberg R, Talmadge J. Adaptation versus Selection: The Origins of Metastatic Behavior. Cancer Res 2007; 67: 1147680.
  • 6
    Luo J, Solimini NL, Elledge SJ. Principles of cancer therapy: oncogene and non-oncogene addiction. Cell 2009; 136: 82337.
  • 7
    Piccart-Gebhart MJ, Procter M, Leyland-Jones B, Goldhirsch A, Untch M, Smith I, Gianni L, Baselga J, Bell R, Jackisch C, Cameron D, Dowsett M, et al. Trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 165972.
  • 8
    Romond EH, Perez EA, Bryant J, Suman VJ, Geyer CE,Jr, Davidson NE, Tan-Chiu E, Martino S, Paik S, Kaufman PA, Swain SM, Pisansky TM, et al. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 167384.
  • 9
    Ciardiello F, Tortora G. EGFR antagonists in cancer treatment. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 116074.
  • 10
    Sartore-Bianchi A, Martini M, Molinari F, Veronese S, Nichelatti M, Artale S, Di Nicolantonio F, Saletti P, De Dosso S, Mazzucchelli L, Frattini M, Siena S, et al. PIK3CA mutations in colorectal cancer are associated with clinical resistance to EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibodies. Cancer Res 2009; 69: 18517.
  • 11
    Antonescu CR. Targeted therapy of cancer: new roles for pathologists in identifying GISTs and other sarcomas. Mod Pathol 2008; 21 ( Suppl 2): S31S36.
  • 12
    Riethdorf S, Wikman H, Pantel K. Review: biological relevance of disseminated tumor cells in cancer patients. Int J Cancer 2008; 123: 19912006.
  • 13
    Schlimok G, Funke I, Holzmann B, Göttlinger G, Schmidt G, Häuser H, Swierkot S, Warnecke HH, Schneider B, Koprowski H. Micrometastatic cancer cells in bone marrow: in vitro detection with anti-cytokeratin and in vivo labeling with anti-17–1A monoclonal antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987; 84: 86726.
  • 14
    Passlick B, Izbicki JR, Kubuschok B, Nathrath W, Thetter O, Pichlmeier U, Schweiberer L, Riethmuller G, Pantel K. Immunohistochemical assessment of individual tumor cells in lymph nodes of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 1994; 12: 182732.
  • 15
    Schardt JA, Meyer M, Hartmann CH, Schubert F, Schmidt-Kittler O, Fuhrmann C, Polzer B, Petronio M, Eils R, Klein CA. Genomic analysis of single cytokeratin-positive cells from bone marrow reveals early mutational events in breast cancer. Cancer Cell 2005; 8: 22739.
  • 16
    Schmidt-Kittler O, Ragg T, Daskalakis A, Granzow M, Ahr A, Blankenstein TJ, Kaufmann M, Diebold J, Arnholdt H, Muller P, Bischoff J, Harich D, et al. From latent disseminated cells to overt metastasis: genetic analysis of systemic breast cancer progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003; 100: 773742.
  • 17
    Stoecklein NH, Hosch SB, Bezler M, Stern F, Hartmann CH, Vay C, Siegmund A, Scheunemann P, Schurr P, Knoefel WT, Verde PE, Reichelt U, et al. Direct genetic analysis of single disseminated cancer cells for prediction of outcome and therapy selection in esophageal cancer. Cancer Cell 2008; 13: 44153.
  • 18
    Weckermann D, Polzer B, Ragg T, Blana A, Schlimok G, Arnholdt H, Bertz S, Harzmann R, Klein CA. Perioperative activation of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow of patients with prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27: 154956.
  • 19
    Hüsemann Y, Geigl JB, Schubert F, Musiani P, Meyer M, Burghart E, Forni G, Eils R, Fehm T, Riethmüller G, Klein CA. Systemic spread is an early step in breast cancer. Cancer Cell 2008; 13: 5868.
  • 20
    Jones S, Chen WD, Parmigiani G, Diehl F, Beerenwinkel N, Antal T, Traulsen A, Nowak MA, Siegel C, Velculescu VE, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, et al. Comparative lesion sequencing provides insights into tumor evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008; 105: 42838.
  • 21
    Vogelstein B, Fearon ER, Hamilton SR, Kern SE, Preisinger AC, Leppert M, Nakamura Y, White R, Smits AM, Bos JL. Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 52532.
  • 22
    Al-Mulla F, Going JJ, Sowden ET, Winter A, Pickford IR, Birnie GD. Heterogeneity of mutant versus wild-type Ki-ras in primary and metastatic colorectal carcinomas, and association of codon-12 valine with early mortality. J Pathol 1998; 185: 1308.
  • 23
    Albanese I, Scibetta AG, Migliavacca M, Russo A, Bazan V, Tomasino RM, Colomba P, Tagliavia M, La Farina M. Heterogeneity within and between primary colorectal carcinomas and matched metastases as revealed by analysis of Ki-ras and p53 mutations. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004; 325: 78491.
  • 24
    Artale S, Sartore-Bianchi A, Veronese SM, Gambi V, Sarnataro CS, Gambacorta M, Lauricella C, Siena S. Mutations of KRAS and BRAF in primary and matched metastatic sites of colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26: 421719.
  • 25
    Oudejans JJ, Slebos RJ, Zoetmulder FA, Mooi WJ, Rodenhuis S. Differential activation of ras genes by point mutation in human colon cancer with metastases to either lung or liver. Int J Cancer 1991; 49: 8759.
  • 26
    Santini D, Loupakis F, Vincenzi B, Floriani I, Stasi I, Canestrari E, Rulli E, Maltese PE, Andreoni F, Masi G, Graziano F, Baldi GG, et al. High concordance of KRAS status between primary colorectal tumors and related metastatic sites: implications for clinical practice. Oncologist 2008; 13: 12705.
  • 27
    Suchy B, Zietz C, Rabes HM. K-ras point mutations in human colorectal carcinomas: relation to aneuploidy and metastasis. Int J Cancer 1992; 52: 303.
  • 28
    Weber JC, Meyer N, Pencreach E, Schneider A, Guérin E, Neuville A, Stemmer C, Brigand C, Bachellier P, Rohr S, Kedinger M, Meyer C, et al. Allelotyping analyses of synchronous primary and metastasis CIN colon cancers identified different subtypes. Int J Cancer 2007; 120: 52432.
  • 29
    Kastrinakis WV, Ramchurren N, Rieger KM, Hess DT, Loda M, Steele G, Summerhayes IC. Increased incidence of p53 mutations is associated with hepatic metastasis in colorectal neoplastic progression. Oncogene 1995; 11: 64752.
  • 30
    Yang Y, Forslund A, Remotti H, Lonnroth C, Andersson M, Brevinge H, Svanberg E, Lindner P, Hafstrom L, Naredi P, Lundholm K. P53 mutations in primary tumors and subsequent liver metastases are related to survival in patients with colorectal carcinoma who undergo liver resection. Cancer 2001; 91: 72736.
  • 31
    Yao J, Goh HS, Smith DR. p53 mutations in primary colorectal adenocarcinomas and liver metastases. Br J Surg 1996; 83: 12456.
  • 32
    Zhang JS, Caplin S, Bosman FT, Benhattar J. Genetic diversity at the p53 locus between primary human colorectal adenocarcinomas and their lymph-node metastases. Int J Cancer 1997; 70: 6748.
  • 33
    Stapleton AM, Timme TL, Gousse AE, Li QF, Tobon AA, Kattan MW, Slawin KM, Wheeler TM, Scardino PT, Thompson TC. Primary human prostate cancer cells harboring p53 mutations are clonally expanded in metastases. Clin Cancer Res 1997; 3: 138997.
  • 34
    Kuwabara S, Ajioka Y, Watanabe H, Hitomi J, Nishikura K, Hatakeyama K. Heterogeneity of p53 mutational status in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Jpn J Cancer Res 1998; 89: 40510.
  • 35
    Lynch TJ. The evolving story of the epidermal growth factor receptor as a target for non-small-cell lung cancer. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol 2004; 2: 7867.
  • 36
    Lynch TJ, Bell DW, Sordella R, Gurubhagavatula S, Okimoto RA, Brannigan BW, Harris PL, Haserlat SM, Supko JG, Haluska FG, Louis DN, Christiani DC, et al. Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor underlying responsiveness of non-small-cell lung cancer to gefitinib. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 212939.
  • 37
    Paez JG, Janne PA, Lee JC, Tracy S, Greulich H, Gabriel S, Herman P, Kaye FJ, Lindeman N, Boggon TJ, Naoki K, Sasaki H, et al. EGFR mutations in lung cancer: correlation with clinical response to gefitinib therapy. Science 2004; 304: 1497500.
  • 38
    Gow CH, Chang YL, Hsu YC, Tsai MF, Wu CT, Yu CJ, Yang CH, Lee YC, Yang PC, Shih JY. Comparison of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations between primary and corresponding metastatic tumors in tyrosine kinase inhibitor-naïve non-small-cell lung cancer. Ann Oncol 2009; 20: 696702.
  • 39
    Kalikaki A, Koutsopoulos A, Trypaki M, Souglakos J, Stathopoulos E, Georgoulias V, Mavroudis D, Voutsina A. Comparison of EGFR and K-RAS gene status between primary tumours and corresponding metastases in NSCLC. Br J Cancer 2008; 99: 9239.
  • 40
    Bozzetti C, Tiseo M, Lagrasta C, Nizzoli R, Guazzi A, Leonardi F, Gasparro D, Spiritelli E, Rusca M, Carbognani P, Majori M, Franciosi V, et al. Comparison between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene expression in primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and in fine-needle aspirates from distant metastatic sites. J Thorac Oncol 2008; 3: 1822.
  • 41
    Pawelek JM, Chakraborty AK. Fusion of tumour cells with bone marrow-derived cells: a unifying explanation for metastasis. Nat Rev Cancer 2008; 8: 37786.
  • 42
    Becker TE, Ellsworth RE, Deyarmin B, Patney HL, Jordan RM, Hooke JA, Shriver CD, Ellsworth DL. The genomic heritage of lymph node metastases: implications for clinical management of patients with breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol 2008; 15: 105663.
  • 43
    Sasatomi E, Finkelstein SD, Woods JD, Bakker A, Swalsky PA, Luketich JD, Fernando HC, Yousem SA. Comparison of accumulated allele loss between primary tumor and lymph node metastasis in stage II non-small cell lung carcinoma: implications for the timing of lymph node metastasis and prognostic value. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 26819.
  • 44
    Bahrami S, Cheng L, Wang M, Jones TD, Malone JC, Billings SD. Clonal relationships between epidermotropic metastatic melanomas and their primary lesions: a loss of heterozygosity and X-chromosome inactivation-based analysis. Mod Pathol 2007; 20: 8217.
  • 45
    Götte K, Riedel F, Schäfer C, Coy JF, Hörmann K. Genetic discordance between primary tumours and metastases of head and neck cancer detected by microsatellite analysis. Oncol Rep 2002; 9: 82934.
  • 46
    Jones TD, Carr MD, Eble JN, Wang M, Lopez-Beltran A, Cheng L. Clonal origin of lymph node metastases in bladder carcinoma. Cancer 2005; 104: 190110.
  • 47
    Katona TM, Jones TD, Wang M, Eble JN, Billings SD, Cheng L. Genetically heterogeneous and clonally unrelated metastases may arise in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2007; 31: 102937.
  • 48
    Kuukasjärvi T, Karhu R, Tanner M, Kähkönen M, Schäffer A, Nupponen N, Pennanen S, Kallioniemi A, Kallioniemi OP, Isola J. Genetic heterogeneity and clonal evolution underlying development of asynchronous metastasis in human breast cancer. Cancer Res 1997; 57: 1597604.
  • 49
    Torres L, Ribeiro FR, Pandis N, Andersen JA, Heim S, Teixeira MR. Intratumor genomic heterogeneity in breast cancer with clonal divergence between primary carcinomas and lymph node metastases. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2007; 102: 14355.
  • 50
    Santos SC, Cavalli IJ, Ribeiro EM, Urban CA, Lima RS, Bleggi-Torres LF, Rone JD, Haddad BR, Cavalli LR. Patterns of DNA copy number changes in sentinel lymph node breast cancer metastases. Cytogenet Genome Res 2008; 122: 1621.
  • 51
    Al-Mulla F, Keith WN, Pickford IR, Going JJ, Birnie GD. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of primary colorectal carcinomas and their synchronous metastases. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1999; 24: 30614.
  • 52
    Alcock HE, Stephenson TJ, Royds JA, Hammond DW. Analysis of colorectal tumor progression by microdissection and comparative genomic hybridization. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2003; 37: 36980.
  • 53
    Jiang JK, Chen YJ, Lin CH, Yu IT, Lin JK. Genetic changes and clonality relationship between primary colorectal cancers and their pulmonary metastases—an analysis by comparative genomic hybridization. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2005; 43: 2536.
  • 54
    Knösel T, Petersen S, Schwabe H, Schlüns K, Stein U, Schlag PM, Dietel M, Petersen I. Incidence of chromosomal imbalances in advanced colorectal carcinomas and their metastases. Virchows Arch 2002; 440: 18794.
  • 55
    Knösel T, Schlüns K, Dietel M, Petersen I. Chromosomal alterations in lung metastases of colorectal carcinomas: associations with tissue specific tumor dissemination. Clin Exp Metastasis 2005; 22: 5338.
  • 56
    Knösel T, Schlüns K, Stein U, Schwabe H, Schlag PM, Dietel M, Petersen I. Chromosomal alterations during lymphatic and liver metastasis formation of colorectal cancer. Neoplasia 2004; 6: 238.
  • 57
    Walch AK, Zitzelsberger HF, Bink K, Hutzler P, Bruch J, Braselmann H, Aubele MM, Mueller J, Stein H, Siewert JR, Höfler H, Werner M. Molecular genetic changes in metastatic primary Barrett's adenocarcinoma and related lymph node metastases: comparison with nonmetastatic Barrett's adenocarcinoma. Mod Pathol 2000; 13: 81424.
  • 58
    Walch AK, Zitzelsberger HF, Bruch J, Keller G, Angermeier D, Aubele MM, Mueller J, Stein H, Braselmann H, Siewert JR, Höfler H, Werner M. Chromosomal imbalances in Barrett's adenocarcinoma and the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. Am J Pathol 2000; 156: 55566.
  • 59
    Weigelt B, Glas AM, Wessels LF, Witteveen AT, Peterse JL, van't Veer LJ. Gene expression profiles of primary breast tumors maintained in distant metastases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003; 100: 159015.
  • 60
    Weigelt B, Wessels LF, Bosma AJ, Glas AM, Nuyten DS, He YD, Dai H, Peterse JL, van't Veer LJ. No common denominator for breast cancer lymph node metastasis. Br J Cancer 2005; 93: 92432.
  • 61
    Roepman P, de Jager A, Groot Koerkamp MJ, Kummer JA, Slootweg PJ, Holstege FC. Maintenance of head and neck tumor gene expression profiles upon lymph node metastasis. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 111104.
  • 62
    Vecchi M, Confalonieri S, Nuciforo P, Viganò MA, Capra M, Bianchi M, Nicosia D, Bianchi F, Galimberti V, Viale G, Palermo G, Riccardi A, et al. Breast cancer metastases are molecularly distinct from their primary tumors. Oncogene 2008; 27: 214858.
  • 63
    Suzuki M, Tarin D. Gene expression profiling of human lymph node metastases and matched primary breast carcinomas: clinical implications. Mol Oncol 2007; 1: 17280.
  • 64
    Feng Y, Sun B, Li X, Zhang L, Niu Y, Xiao C, Ning L, Fang Z, Wang Y, Zhang L, Cheng J, Zhang W, et al. Differentially expressed genes between primary cancer and paired lymph node metastases predict clinical outcome of node-positive breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2007; 103: 31929.
  • 65
    Hao X, Sun B, Hu L, Lahdesmaki H, Dunmire V, Feng Y, Zhang SW, Wang H, Wu C, Fuller GN, Symmans WF, Shmulevich I, et al. Differential gene and protein expression in primary breast malignancies and their lymph node metastases as revealed by combined cDNA microarray and tissue microarray analysis. Cancer 2004; 100: 111022.
  • 66
    Ki DH, Jeung HC, Park CH, Kang SH, Lee GY, Lee WS, Kim NK, Chung HC, Rha SY. Whole genome analysis for liver metastasis gene signatures in colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer 2007; 121: 200512.
  • 67
    Hunter K. Host genetics influence tumour metastasis. Nat Rev Cancer 2006; 6: 1416.
  • 68
    Baudis M. Progenetix—cytogenetic abnormalities in human cancer. Available at:www.progenetix.net, vol. 2009, 2000.