• 1
    Pignon JP, Bourhis J, Domenge C, Designé L. Chemotherapy added to locoregional treatment for head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma: three meta-analyses of updated individual data. MACH-NC collaborative group meta-analysis of chemotherapy on head and neck cancer. Lancet 2000; 355: 94955.
  • 2
    Bertino JR, Boston B, Capizzi RL. The role of chemotherapy in the management of cancer of the head and neck: a review. Cancer 1975; 36: 7528.
  • 3
    Yeoh A, Gibson R, Yeoh E, Bowen J, Stringer A, Giam K, Logan R, Keefe D. Radiation therapy-induced mucositis: Relationships between fractionated radiation. NF-k B, COX-1, and COX-2. Cancer Treat Rev 2006; 32: 64551.
  • 4
    Naidu MU, Ramana GV, Rani PU, Mohan IK, Suman A, Roy P. Chemotherapy-induced and/or radiation therapy-induced oral mucositis–complicating the treatment of cancer. Neoplasia 2004; 6: 42331.
  • 5
    Haddad R, Sonis S, Posner M, Wirth L, Costello R, Braschayko P, Allen A, Mahadevan A, Flynn J, Burke E, Li Y, Tishler RB. Randomized phase 2 study of concomitant chemoradiotherapy using weekly carboplatin/paclitaxel with or without daily subcutaneous amifostine in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer. Cancer 2009; 115: 451423.
  • 6
    Sonis ST, Elting LS, Keefe D, Peterson DE, Schubert M, Hauer-Jensen M, Bekele BN, Raber-Durlacher J, Donnelly JP, Rubenstein EB; Mucositis Study Section of the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer; International Society for Oral Oncology. Perspectives on cancer therapy-induced mucosal injury: pathogenesis, measurement, epidemiology, and consequences for patients. Cancer 2004; 100( 9 Suppl): 19952025.
  • 7
    Veerasarn V, Phromratanapongse P, Suntornpong N, Lorvidhaya V, Sukthomya V, Chitapanarux I, Tesavibul C, Swangsilpa T, Khorprasert C, Shotelersuk K, Kongthanarat Y, Panichevaluk A, et al. Effect of Amifostine to prevent radiotherapy-induced acute and late toxicity in head and neck cancer patients who had normal or mild impaired salivary gland function. J Med Assoc Thai 2006; 89: 205667.
  • 8
    Bourhis J, De Crevoisier R, Abdulkarim B, Deutsch E, Lusinchi A, Luboinski B, Wibault P, Eschwege F. A randomized study of very accelerated radiotherapy with and without amifostine in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000; 46: 11058.
  • 9
    Wagner W, Prott FJ, Schonekas KG. Amifostine: a radioprotector in locally advanced head and neck tumors. Oncol Rep 1998; 5: 12557.
  • 10
    Antonadou D, Pepelassi M, Synodinou M, Puglisi M, Throuvalas N. Prophylactic use of amifostine to prevent radiochemotherapy-induced mucositis and xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002; 52: 73947.
  • 11
    Ferreira PR, Fleck JF, Diehl A, Barletta D, Braga-Filho A, Barletta A, Ilha L. Protective effect of alpha-tocopherol in head and neck cancer radiation-induced mucositis: a double-blind randomized trial. Head Neck 2004; 26: 31321.
  • 12
    Lissoni P, Barni S, Mandalà M, Ardizzoia A, Paolorossi F, Vaghi M, Longarini R, Malugani F, Tancini G. Decreased toxicity and increased efficacy of cancer chemotherapy using the pineal hormone melatonin in metastatic solid tumour patients with poor clinical status. Eur J Cancer 1999; 35: 168892.
  • 13
    Greenberg B, Ahmann F, Garewal H, Koopmann C, Coulthard S, Berzes H, Alberts D, Shimm D, Slymen D. Neoadjuvant therapy for advanced head and neck cancer with allopurinol-modulated high dose 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. A phase I-II study. Cancer 1987; 59: 18605.
  • 14
    Etiz D, Erkal HS, Serin M, Küçük B, Hepari A, Elhan AH, Tulunay O, Cakmak A. Clinical and histopathological evaluation of sucralfate in prevention of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy in patients with head and neck malignancies. Oral Oncol 2000; 36: 11620.
  • 15
    Epstein JB, Silverman S, Jr., Paggiarino DA, Crockett S, Schubert MM, Senzer NN, Lockhart PB, Gallagher MJ, Peterson DE, Leveque FG. Benzydamine HCl for prophylaxis of radiation-induced oral mucositis: results from a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Cancer 2001; 92: 87585.
  • 16
    Kazemian A, Kamian S, Aghili M, Hashemi FA, Haddad P. Benzydamine for prophylaxis of radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancers: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Eur J Cancer Care 2009; 18: 1748.
  • 17
    Veness MJ, Foroudi F, Gebski V, Timms I, Sathiyaseelan Y, Cakir B, Tiver KW. Use of topical misoprostol to reduce radiation-induced mucositis: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Australas Radiol 2006; 50: 46874.
  • 18
    Dajani EZ, Klamut MJ. Novel therapeutic approaches to gastric and duodenal ulcers: an update. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2000; 9: 153744.
  • 19
    Naito Y, Yoshikawa T, Yagi N, Matsuyama K, Yoshida N, Seto K, Yoneta T. Effects of polaprezinc on lipid peroxidation, neutrophil accumulation, and TNF-α expression in rats with aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury. Dig Dis Sci 2001; 46: 84551.
  • 20
    Shimada T, Watanabe N, Ohtsuka Y, Endoh M, Kojima K, Hiraishi H, Terano A. Polaprezinc down-regulates proinflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor-kB activiation and interleukin-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 291: 34552.
  • 21
    Mitsuhashi H, Suemaru K, Li B, Cui R, Araki H. Evaluation of topical external medicine for 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis in hamsters. Eur J Pharmacol 2006; 551: 1525.
  • 22
    Katayama S, Nishizawa K, Hirano M, Yamamura S, Momose Y. Effect of polaprezinc on healing of acetic acid-induced stomatitis in hamsters. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2000; 3: 1147.
  • 23
    Palazzi M, Tomatis S, Orlandi E, Guzzo M, Sangalli C, Potepan P, Fantini S, Bergamini C, Gavazzi C, Licitra L, Scaramellini G, Cantu' G, Olmi P. Effects of treatment intensification on acute local toxicity during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: prospective observational study validating CTCAE, version 3.0, scoring system. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008; 70: 3307.
  • 24
    Mazumdar M, Smith A, Schwartz LH. A statistical simulation study finds discordance between WHO criteria and RECIST guideline. J Clin Epidemiol 2004; 57: 35865.
  • 25
    Trotti A, Bellm LA, Epstein JB, Frame D, Fuchs HJ, Gwede CK, Komaroff E, Nalysnyk L, Zilberberg MD. Mucositis incidence, severity and associated outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer receiving radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy: a systematic literature review. Radiother Oncol 2003; 66: 25362.
  • 26
    Keefe DM, Schubert MM, Elting LS, Sonis ST, Epstein JB, Raber-Durlacher JE, Migliorati CA, McGuire DB, Hutchins RD, Peterson DE; Mucositis Study Section of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer and the International Society for Oral Oncology. Mucositis Study Section of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer and the International Society for Oral Oncology. Updated clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of mucositis. Cancer 2007; 109: 82031.
  • 27
    Ertekin MV, Koç M, Karslioglu I, Sezen O. Zinc sulfate in the prevention of radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis: a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004; 58: 16774.
  • 28
    Hiraishi H, Sasai T, Oinuma T, Shimada T, Sugaya H, Terano A. Polaprezinc protects gastric mucosal cells from noxious agents through antioxidant properties in vitro. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13: 2619.
  • 29
    Ueda K, Ueyama T, Oka M, Ito T, Tsuruo Y, Ichinose M. Polaprezinc (Zinc L-carnosine) is a potent inducer of anti-oxidative stress enzyme, heme oxygenase (HO)-1 - a new mechanism of gastric mucosal protection. J Pharmacol Sci 2009; 110: 28594.
  • 30
    Odashima M, Otaka M, Jin M, Konishi N, Sato T, Kato S, Matsuhashi T, Nakamura C, Watanabe S. Induction of a 72-kDa heat-shock protein in cultured rat gastric mucosal cells and rat gastric mucosa by zinc L-carnosine. Dig Dis Sci 2002; 47: 2799804.
  • 31
    Fall-Dickson JM, Ramsay ES, Castro K, Woltz P, Sportés C. Oral mucositis-related oropharyngeal pain and correlative tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in adult oncology patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clin Ther 2007; 29 ( Suppl): 254761.
  • 32
    Sakagami M, Ikeda M, Tomita H, Ikui A, Aiba T, Takeda N, Inokuchi A, Kurono Y, Nakashima M, Shibasaki Y, Yotsuya O. A zinc-containing compound, polaprezinc, is effective for patients with taste disorders: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center study. Acta Otolaryngol 2008; 26: 16.
  • 33
    Ripamonti C, Zecca E, Brunelli C, Fulfaro F, Villa S, Balzarini A, Bombardieri E, De Conno F. A randomized, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of zinc sulfate on cancer patients with taste alterations caused by head and neck irradiation. Cancer 1998; 82: 193845.
  • 34
    Halyard MY, Jatoi A, Sloan JA, Bearden JD, 3rd, Vora SA, Atherton PJ, Perez EA, Soori G, Zalduendo AC, Zhu A, Stella PJ, Loprinzi CL. Does zinc sulfate prevent therapy-induced taste alterations in head and neck cancer patients? Results of phase. III double-blind, placebo-controlled trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N01C4). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007; 67: 131822.
  • 35
    Tanaka M. Secretory function of the salivary gland in patients with taste disorders or xerostomia: correlation with zinc deficiency. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 2002; 546: 13441.