• 1
    Mqoqi NP, Kellett P, Sitas F, Jula M. Cancer in South Africa: Incidence of histologically diagnosed cancer in South Africa, 1998–1999. Johannesburg: National Cancer Registry Report, National Health Laboratory Service, 2004.
  • 2
    Norman R, Mqoqi N, Sitas F. Lifestyle induced cancer in South Africa. In: SteynK, FourieJ, TempleN, eds. Chronic diseases of lifestyle in South Africa: 1995–2005. Cape Town: Medical Research Council 2006. 142185.
  • 3
    Jaskiewicz K, Marasas WFO, Van der Walt FE. Oesophageal and other main cancer patterns in four districts of Transkei, 1981–1984. S Afr Med J 1987; 72: 2730.
  • 4
    Makaula N, Marasas WFO, Venter FS, Badenhorst CJ, Bradshaw D, Swanevelder S. Oesophageal cancer and other cancer patterns in four selected districts of Transkei. Southern Africa: 1985–1990. Afr J Health Sci 1996; 3: 1115.
  • 5
    Statistics South Africa. Census 2001: Census in Brief. Report No 03–02-03(2001). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa, 2003.
  • 6
    Dorrington RE, Bradshaw D, Johnson L, Daniel T. The demographic impact of HIV/AIDS in South Africa. National and provincial indicators 2006. Cape Town: Centre for Actuarial Research, South African Medical Research Council, Actuarial Society of South Africa, 2006.
  • 7
    FritzA, PercyC, JackA, ShanmugaratnamK, SobinL, ParkinDM, WhelanS, eds. International classification of diseases for oncology. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000.
  • 8
    Cooke AP, Parkin DM, Ferlay J. CanReg 4. Descriptive epidemiology production unit, international agency for research on cancer. Last updated 2006. Available at:
  • 9
    Parkin DM, Whelan S, Ferlay J, Storm H. Cancer incidence in five continents, Vol. I to VIII. IARC CancerBase No. 7, Lyon, 2005.
  • 10
    Parkin DM, Sitas F, Chirenje M, Stein L, Abratt R, Wabinga HI. Cancer in indigenous. Africans—burden, distribution and trends. Lancet Oncol 2008; 9: 68392.
  • 11
    ParkinDM, WhelanSL, FerlayJ, TeppoL, ThomasDB, eds. Cancer incidence in five continents volume VIII, IARC Scientific Publication No. 155: International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon, 2002.
  • 12
    Rose EF. Oesophageal cancer in the Transkei: 1955–1969. J Natl Cancer Inst 1973; 51: 716.
  • 13
    Rose EF, Mcglashan ND. The spatial distribution of oesophageal carcinoma in the Transkei. S Afr Br J Can 1975; 31: 197206.
  • 14
    Rose EF, Fellingham SA. Cancer patterns in Transkei. S Afr J Sci 1981; 77: 555561.
  • 15
    Somdyala NIM, Marasas WFO, Venter FS, Vismer HF, Swanevelder SA. Cancer patterns in four districts of the Transkei Region of the Eastern Cape Province. South Africa: 1991–1995. S Afr Med J 2003; 93: 1448.
  • 16
    Bradshaw D, Laubser R, Nojilana B, Pieterse D, Nannan N, Eastern cape primary health care evaluation surveys: results from the 2002 household survey. Report prepared for Eastern Cape Department of Health and Equity Project, 2004.
  • 17
    Pacella-Norman R, Urban MI, Sitas F, Carrara H, Sur R, Ruff P, Patel M, Newton R, Bull D, Beral V. Risk factors for oesophageal, lung, oral, and laryngeal cancers in black South Africans. Br J Can 2002; 86: 17511756.
  • 18
    Marasas WFO, Jaskiewicz K, Venter FS, Van Schalkwyk DJ. Fusarium moniliforme contamination of maize in oesophageal cancer areas in. Transkei. S Afr Med J 1988; 74: 11014.
  • 19
    IARC. Some naturally occurring substances: food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, Volume 56. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1993.
  • 20
    Sitas F, Parkin DM, Chirenje M, Stein L, Abratt R, Wabinga H. II. Cancer in indigenous Africans—causes and control. Lancet Oncol 2008; 9: 78695.
  • 21
    Denny L. Prevention of cervical cancer. Reprod Health Matters 2008; 16: 1831.
  • 22
    Moodley J, Kawonga M, Bradley J, Hoffman M. Challenges in implementing a cervical screening program in South Africa. Cancer Detect Prev 2006; 30: 3618.
  • 23
    Denny L, Kuhn L, De Souza M, Pollack AE, Dupree W, Wright TC Jr., Screen-and-treat approaches for cervical cancer prevention in low-resource settings: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005; 294: 217381.
  • 24
    Schiffman M, Wacholder S. From India to the world—a better way to prevent cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 14535.
  • 25
    Parkin DM, Bray F. Evaluation of data quality in the cancer registry: principles and methods. II. Completeness. Eur J Cancer 2009; 45: 75664.
  • 26
    Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, Parkin DM. GLOBOCAN 2000. Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide. Version 1.0. IARC CancerBase No. 5. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2000.
  • 27
    CuradoM, EdwardsB, ShinH, StormH, FerlayJ, HeanueM, BoyleP (Eds.). Cancer incidence in five continents, Vol. IX. IARC Scientific Publications No. 160. Lyon: IARC, 2007.
  • 28
    Robson SC, Kirsch RE. National strategy for viral hepatitis: recommendations and guidelines in South Africa. S Afr Med J 1991; 80: 34756.
  • 29
    Department of Health. National HIV and syphilis prevalence survey South Africa, 2005. Pretoria: Department of Health, 2006.
  • 30
    Stein L, Urban MI, O'Connell D, Yu XQ, Beral V, Newton R, Ruff P, Donde B, Hale M, Patel M, Sitas F. The spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus-associated cancers in a South African black population: results from a case-control study, 1995–2004. Int J Cancer 2008; 122: 22605.
  • 31
    Hutt MS. Kaposi's sarcoma. Br Med Bull 1984; 40: 3558.
  • 32
    Cook-Mozaffari P, Newton R, Beral V, Burkitt DP. The geographical distribution of Kaposi's sarcoma and of lymphomas in Africa before the AIDS epidemic. Br J Cancer 1998; 78: 15218.
  • 33
    Sitas F, Carrara H, Beral V, Newton R, Reeves G, Bull D, Jentsch U, Pacella-Norman R, Bourboulia D, Whitby D, Boshoff C, Weiss R. Antibodies against human herpes virus 8 in black South African patients with cancer. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 186371.
  • 34
    Stein L, Carrara H, Norman R, Alagiozoglou L, Morris L, Sitas F. Antibodies against human herpes virus 8 in South African renal transplant recipients and blood donors. Transpl Infect Dis 2004; 6: 6973.
  • 35
    Wojcicki JM, Newton R, Urban MI, Stein L, Hale M, Patel M, Ruff P, Sur R, Bourboulia D, Sitas F. Risk factors for high anti-HHV-8 antibody titers (≥1: 51,200) in black, HIV-1 negative South African cancer patients: a case control study. BMC Infect Dis 2003: 12; 3: 21.
  • 36
    Iscovich J, Boffetta P, Franceschi S, Azizi E, Sarid R. Classic kaposi sarcoma: epidemiology and risk factors. Cancer 2000; 88: 50017.