• 1
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin 2009; 59: 22549.
  • 2
    Wright SR, Boag AH, Valdimarsson G, Hipfner DR, Campling BG, Cole SP, Deeley RG. Immunohistochemical detection of multidrug resistance protein in human lung cancer and normal lung. Clin Cancer Res 1998; 4: 227989.
  • 3
    Brunsvig PF, Aamdal S, Gjertsen MK, Kvalheim G, Markowski-Grimsrud CJ, Sve I, Dyrhaug M, Trachsel S, Moller M, Eriksen JA, Gaudernack G. Telomerase peptide vaccination: a phase I/II study in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2006; 55: 155364.
  • 4
    Jemal A, Murray T, Ward E, Samuels A, Tiwari RC, Ghafoor A, Feuer EJ, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2005. CA Cancer J Clin 2005; 55: 1030.
  • 5
    Blattman JN, Greenberg PD. Cancer immunotherapy: a treatment for the masses. Science 2004; 305: 2005.
  • 6
    Atanackovic D, Altorki NK, Stockert E, Williamson B, Jungbluth AA, Ritter E, Santiago D, Ferrara CA, Matsuo M, Selvakumar A, Dupont B, Chen YT, et al. Vaccine-induced CD4+ T cell responses to MAGE-3 protein in lung cancer patients. J Immunol 2004; 172: 328996.
  • 7
    Hirschowitz EA, Foody T, Hidalgo GE, Yannelli JR. Immunization of NSCLC patients with antigen-pulsed immature autologous dendritic cells. Lung Cancer 2007; 57: 36572.
  • 8
    Butts C, Murray N, Maksymiuk A, Goss G, Marshall E, Soulieres D, Cormier Y, Ellis P, Price A, Sawhney R, Davis M, Mansi J, et al. Randomized phase IIB trial of BLP25 liposome vaccine in stage IIIB and IV non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 667481.
  • 9
    Nemunaitis J. GVAX (GMCSF gene modified tumor vaccine) in advanced stage non small cell lung cancer. J Control Release 2003; 91: 22531.
  • 10
    Nemunaitis J, Jahan T, Ross H, Sterman D, Richards D, Fox B, Jablons D, Aimi J, Lin A, Hege K. Phase 1/2 trial of autologous tumor mixed with an allogeneic GVAX vaccine in advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer. Cancer Gene Ther 2006; 13: 55562.
  • 11
    Ramos TC, Vinageras EN, Ferrer MC, Verdecia BG, Rupale IL, Perez LM, Marinello GG, Rodriguez RP, Davila AL. Treatment of NSCLC patients with an EGF-based cancer vaccine: report of a Phase I trial. Cancer Biol Ther 2006; 5: 1459.
  • 12
    Raez LE, Cassileth PA, Schlesselman JJ, Sridhar K, Padmanabhan S, Fisher EZ, Baldie PA, Podack ER. Allogeneic vaccination with a B7.1 HLA-A gene-modified adenocarcinoma cell line in patients with advanced non- small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 2004; 22: 28007.
  • 13
    O'Mahony D, Kummar S, Gutierrez ME. Non-small-cell lung cancer vaccine therapy: a concise review. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 90228.
  • 14
    Nemunaitis J. A review of vaccine clinical trials for non-small cell lung cancer. Expert Opin Biol Ther 2007; 7: 89102.
  • 15
    Raez LE, Rosenblatt JD, Podack ER. Present and future of lung cancer vaccines. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2006; 11: 44559.
  • 16
    Huang H, Hao S, Li F, Ye Z, Yang J, Xiang J. CD4+ Th1 cells promote CD8+ Tc1 cell survival, memory response, tumor localization and therapy by targeted delivery of interleukin 2 via acquired pMHC I complexes. Immunology 2007; 120: 14859.
  • 17
    Hung K, Hayashi R, Lafond- Walker A, Lowenstein C, Pardoll D, Levitsky H. The central role of CD4(+) T cells in the antitumor immune response. J Exp Med 1998; 188: 235768.
  • 18
    Janssen EM, Lemmens EE, Wolfe T, Christen U, von Herrath MG, Schoenberger SP. CD4+ T cells are required for secondary expansion and memory in CD8+ T lymphocytes. Nature 2003; 421: 8526.
  • 19
    Shedlock DJ, Shen H. Requirement for CD4 T cell help in generating functional CD8 T cell memory. Science 2003; 300: 3379.
  • 20
    Sun JC, Williams MA, Bevan MJ. CD4+ T cells are required for the maintenance, not programming, of memory CD8+ T cells after acute infection. Nat Immunol 2004; 5: 92733.
  • 21
    Srivastava MK, Bosch JJ, Thompson JA, Ksander BR, Edelman MJ, Ostrand-Rosenberg S. Lung cancer patients' CD4(+) T cells are activated in vitro by MHC II cell-based vaccines despite the presence of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2008; 57: 1493504.
  • 22
    Thompson JA, Srivastava MK, Bosch JJ, Clements VK, Ksander BR, Ostrand-Rosenberg S. The absence of invariant chain in MHC II cancer vaccines enhances the activation of tumor-reactive type 1 CD4+ T lymphocytes. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2008; 57: 38998.
  • 23
    Busch R, Cloutier I, Sekaly RP, Hammerling GJ. Invariant chain protects class II histocompatibility antigens from binding intact polypeptides in the endoplasmic reticulum. EMBO J 1996; 15: 41828.
  • 24
    Pieters J. MHC class II-restricted antigen processing and presentation. Adv Immunol 2000; 75: 159208.
  • 25
    Muntasell A, Carrascal M, Alvarez I, Serradell L, van Veelen P, Verreck FA, Koning F, Abian J, Jaraquemada D. Dissection of the HLA-DR4 peptide repertoire in endocrine epithelial cells: strong influence of invariant chain and HLA-DM expression on the nature of ligands. J Immunol 2004; 173: 108593.
  • 26
    Baskar S, Glimcher L, Nabavi N, Jones RT, Ostrand-Rosenberg S. Major histocompatibility complex class II+B7-1+ tumor cells are potent vaccines for stimulating tumor rejection in tumor-bearing mice. J Exp Med 1995; 181: 61929.
  • 27
    Pulaski BA, Clements VK, Pipeling MR, Ostrand-Rosenberg S. Immunotherapy with vaccines combining MHC class II/CD80+ tumor cells with interleukin-12 reduces established metastatic disease and stimulates immune effectors and monokine induced by interferon gamma. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2000; 49: 3445.
  • 28
    Pulaski BA, Ostrand-Rosenberg S. Reduction of established spontaneous mammary carcinoma metastases following immunotherapy with major histocompatibility complex class II and B7.1 cell-based tumor vaccines. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 148693.
  • 29
    Bosch JJ, Thompson JA, Srivastava MK, Iheagwara UK, Murray TG, Lotem M, Ksander BR, Ostrand-Rosenberg S. MHC class II-transduced tumor cells originating in the immune-privileged eye prime and boost CD4(+) T lymphocytes that cross-react with primary and metastatic uveal melanoma cells. Cancer Res 2007; 67: 4499506.
  • 30
    Dissanayake SK, Thompson JA, Bosch JJ, Clements VK, Chen PW, Ksander BR, Ostrand-Rosenberg S. Activation of tumor-specific CD4(+) T lymphocytes by major histocompatibility complex class II tumor cell vaccines: a novel cell-based immunotherapy. Cancer Res 2004; 64: 186774.
  • 31
    Thompson JA, Dissanayake SK, Ksander BR, Knutson KL, Disis ML, Ostrand-Rosenberg S. Tumor cells transduced with the MHC class II Transactivator and CD80 activate tumor-specific CD4+ T cells whether or not they are silenced for invariant chain. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 114754.
  • 32
    Steimle V, Siegrist CA, Mottet A, Lisowska-Grospierre B, Mach B. Regulation of MHC class II expression by interferon-gamma mediated by the transactivator gene CIITA. Science 1994; 265: 1069.
  • 33
    Ostrand-Rosenberg S, Sinha P. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells: Linking inflammation and cancer. J Immunol 2009; 182: 4499506.
  • 34
    Gabrilovich DI, Nagaraj S. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells as regulators of the immune system. Nat Rev Immunol 2009; 9: 16274.
  • 35
    Salazar LG, Fikes J, Southwood S, Ishioka G, Knutson KL, Gooley TA, Schiffman K, Disis ML. Immunization of cancer patients with HER-2/neu-derived peptides demonstrating high-affinity binding to multiple class II alleles. Clin Cancer Res 2003; 9: 555965.
  • 36
    Ostrand-Rosenberg S, Pulaski BA, Clements VK, Qi L, Pipeling MR, Hanyok LA. Cell-based vaccines for the stimulation of immunity to metastatic cancers. Immunol Rev 1999; 170: 10114.
  • 37
    Bennett SR, Carbone FR, Karamalis F, Miller JF, Heath WR. Induction of a CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte response by cross-priming requires cognate CD4+ T cell help. J Exp Med 1997; 186: 6570.
  • 38
    Keene JA, Forman J. Helper activity is required for the in vivo generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Exp Med 1982; 155: 76882.
  • 39
    Schoenberger SP, Toes RE, van der Voort EI, Offringa R, Melief CJ. T-cell help for cytotoxic T lymphocytes is mediated by CD40-CD40L interactions. Nature 1998; 393: 4803.
  • 40
    Nemunaitis J, Sterman D, Jablons D, Smith JW, 2nd, Fox B, Maples P, Hamilton S, Borellini F, Lin A, Morali S, Hege K. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene-modified autologous tumor vaccines in non-small-cell lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004; 96: 32631.
  • 41
    Raez LE, Cassileth PA, Schlesselman JJ, Padmanabhan S, Fisher EZ, Baldie PA, Sridhar K, Podack ER. Induction of CD8 T-cell-Ifn-gamma response and positive clinical outcome after immunization with gene-modified allogeneic tumor cells in advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Cancer Gene Ther 2003; 10: 8508.
  • 42
    Bosch JJ, Iheagwara UK, Reid S, Srivastava MK, Wolf J, Lotem M, Ksander BR, Ostrand-Rosenberg S. Uveal melanoma cell-based vaccines express MHC II molecules that traffic via the endocytic and secretory pathways and activate CD8(+) cytotoxic, tumor-specific T cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother; 59: 10312.