Human NESG1 (CCDC19) gene was originally isolated in our laboratory from human nasopharynx tissue. However, the biological and clinical significances of this gene remain largely unknown. In this report, two errors in the originally submitted sequence of human NESG1 gene were found, and the open reading frame sequence of NESG1 (Accession number: NM_012337.1) was revised and updated in the NCBI database (Accession number: NM_012337.2). The antibody raised against the revised sequence of NESG1 detected a single band of 66 kD in human nasopharynx tissues. NESG1 transcripts were specifically expressed in the nasopharynx epithelium. Expression of NESG1 transcripts and protein was downregulated or absent in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissues and cell lines in comparison to that in the normal nasopharynx tissues. The levels of NESG1 protein were significantly greater in the low-grade NPC tissues than that in the high-grade NPC tissues. Induced expression of NESG1 in otherwise NESG1-negative 5-8F cells not only significantly decreased cell proliferation, G1-S phase transition, but also markedly inhibited the ability of cell migration and invasion as well as in vivo tumorigenesis. Furthermore, NESG1 also significantly regulated the expression of cell cycle regulator CCNA1 and p21. Our findings first provided evidence that NESG1 may act as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting cell proliferation, invasion and migration of NPC cells.