• 1
    Murakami Y, Miura K, Ueshima H. [Comparison of the trends and current status of obesity between Japan and other developed countries]. Nippon Rinsho 2009; 67: 24552.
  • 2
    Matsuda T, Marugame T, Kamo KI, Katanoda K, Ajiki W, Sobue T. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2003: based on data from 13 population-based Cancer Registries in the monitoring of cancer incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. Jpn J Clin Oncol 2009; 39: 8508.
  • 3
    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Current status of the nations Health and Nutrition in Japan, 2004 edn. Tokyo, Japan: Daiich Publisher, 2006.
  • 4
    Takimoto H, Yoshiike N, Kaneda F, Yoshita K. Thinness among young Japanese women. Am J Public Health 2004; 94: 15925.
  • 5
    Funatogawa I, Funatogawa T, Yano E. Do overweight children necessarily make overweight adults? Repeated cross sectional annual nationwide survey of Japanese girls and women over nearly six decades. BMJ 2008; 337: a802.
  • 6
    Paffenbarger RS, Jr, Kampert JB, Chang HG. Characteristics that predict risk of breast cancer before and after the menopause. Am J Epidemiol 1980; 112: 25868.
  • 7
    Brinton LA, Swanson CA. Height and weight at various ages and risk of breast cancer. Ann Epidemiol 1992; 2: 597609.
  • 8
    Willett WC, Browne ML, Bain C, Lipnick RJ, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Colditz GA, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE. Relative weight and risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 122: 73140.
  • 9
    Coates RJ, Uhler RJ, Hall HI, Potischman N, Brinton LA, Ballard-Barbash R, Gammon MD, Brogan DR, Daling JR, Malone KE, Schoenberg JB, Swanson CA. Risk of breast cancer in young women in relation to body size and weight gain in adolescence and early adulthood. Br J Cancer 1999; 81: 16774.
  • 10
    de Vasconcelos AB, Azevedo e Silva Mendonca G, Sichieri R. Height, weight, weight change and risk of breast cancer in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sao Paulo Med J 2001; 119: 626.
  • 11
    Hirose K, Tajima K, Hamajima N, Takezaki T, Inoue M, Kuroishi T, Miura S, Tokudome S. Effect of body size on breast-cancer risk among Japanese women. Int J Cancer 1999; 80: 34955.
  • 12
    Ziegler RG, Hoover RN, Nomura AM, West DW, Wu AH, Pike MC, Lake AJ, Horn-Ross PL, Kolonel LN, Siiteri PK, Fraumeni JF, Jr. Relative weight, weight change, height, and breast cancer risk in Asian-American women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996; 88: 65060.
  • 13
    Huang Z, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Hunter DJ, Manson JE, Hennekens CH, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Willett WC. Dual effects of weight and weight gain on breast cancer risk. JAMA 1997; 278: 140711.
  • 14
    Michels KB, Terry KL, Willett WC. Longitudinal study on the role of body size in premenopausal breast cancer. Arch Inter Med 2006; 166: 2395402.
  • 15
    Trentham-Dietz A, Newcomb PA, Storer BE, Longnecker MP, Baron J, Greenberg ER, Willett WC. Body size and risk of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 145: 10119.
  • 16
    Weiderpass E, Braaten T, Magnusson C, Kumle M, Vainio H, Lund E, Adami HO. A prospective study of body size in different periods of life and risk of premenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004; 13: 11217.
  • 17
    Eliassen AH, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Willett WC, Hankinson SE. Adult weight change and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. JAMA 2006; 296: 193201.
  • 18
    Lahmann PH, Schulz M, Hoffmann K, Boeing H, Tjonneland A, Olsen A, Overvad K, Key TJ, Allen NE, Khaw KT, Bingham S, Berglund G, et al. Long-term weight change and breast cancer risk: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Brit J Cancer 2005; 93: 5829.
  • 19
    Barnes-Josiah D, Potter JD, Sellers TA, Himes JH. Early body size and subsequent weight gain as predictors of breast cancer incidence (Iowa, United States). Cancer Causes Control 1995; 6: 1128.
  • 20
    Potischman N, Swanson CA, Siiteri P, Hoover RN. Reversal of relation between body mass and endogenous estrogen concentrations with menopausal status. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996; 88: 7568.
  • 21
    Sakakura T, Nishizuka Y, Dawe CJ. Capacity of mammary fat pads of adult C3H/HeMs mice to interact morphogenetically with fetal mammary epithelium. J Natl Cancer Inst 1979; 63: 7336.
  • 22
    Tsugane S, Sobue T. Baseline survey of JPHC study—design and participation rate. Japan public health center-based prospective study on cancer and cardiovascular diseases. J Epidemiol 2001; 11: S249.
  • 23
    Tsugane S, Sasaki S, Tsubono Y. Under- and overweight impact on mortality among middle-aged Japanese men and women: a 10-y follow-up of JPHC study cohort I. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002; 26: 52937.
  • 24
    Tsubono Y, Takamori S, Kobayashi M, Takahashi T, Iwase Y, Iitoi Y, Akabane M, Yamaguchi M, Tsugane S. A data-based approach for designing a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire for a population-based prospective study in Japan. J Epidemiol 1996; 6: 4553.
  • 25
    World Health Organization. International classification of diseases for oncology, 3rd edn. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2000.
  • 26
    Korn EL, Graubard BI, Midthune D. Time-to-event analysis of longitudinal follow-up of a survey: choice of the time-scale. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 145: 7280.
  • 27
    Collett D. Modelling survival data in medical research, texts in statistical scienceed. New York: Chapman & Hall/CRC, 1993.
  • 28
    WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet 2004; 363: 15763.
  • 29
    Iwasaki M, Inoue M, Otani T, Sasazuki S, Kurahashi N, Miura T, Yamamoto S, Tsugane S. Plasma isoflavone level and subsequent risk of breast cancer among Japanese women: a nested case-control study from the Japan public health center-based prospective study group. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26: 167783.
  • 30
    Iwasaki M, Otani T, Inoue M, Sasazuki S, Tsugane S. Role and impact of menstrual and reproductive factors on breast cancer risk in Japan. Eur J Cancer Prev 2007; 16: 11623.
  • 31
    Hanaoka T, Yamamoto S, Sobue T, Sasaki S, Tsugane S. Active and passive smoking and breast cancer risk in middle-aged Japanese women. Int J Cancer 2005; 114: 31722.
  • 32
    Li HL, Gao YT, Li Q, Liu DK. [Anthropometry and female breast cancer: a prospective cohort study in urban Shanghai]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2006; 27: 48893.
  • 33
    Kolonel LN, Nomura AM, Lee J, Hirohata T. Anthropometric indicators of breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women in Hawaii. Nutr Cancer 1986; 8: 24756.
  • 34
    Baer HJ, Tworoger SS, Hankinson SE, Willett WC. Body fatness at young ages and risk of breast cancer throughout life. Am J Epidemiol 2010; 171: 118394.
  • 35
    Suzuki R, Orsini N, Saji S, Key TJ, Wolk A. Body weight and incidence of breast cancer defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status-A meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 2009; 124: 698712.
  • 36
    Feigelson HS, Jonas CR, Teras LR, Thun MJ, Calle EE. Weight gain, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, and postmenopausal breast cancer in a large prospective study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004; 13: 2204.
  • 37
    Rich-Edwards JW, Goldman MB, Willett WC, Hunter DJ, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Manson JE. Adolescent body mass index and infertility caused by ovulatory disorder. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994; 171: 1717.
  • 38
    Sakakura T, Nishizuka Y, Dawe CJ. Mesenchyme-dependent morphogenesis and epithelium-specific cytodifferentiation in mouse mammary gland. Science 1976; 194: 143941.
  • 39
    Shyamala G. Progesterone signaling and mammary gland morphogenesis. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 1999; 4: 89104.
  • 40
    Kalkhoff RK. Metabolic effects of progesterone. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982; 142: 7358.
  • 41
    Russo J, Hu YF, Silva ID, Russo IH. Cancer risk related to mammary gland structure and development. Microsc Res Tech 2001; 52: 20423.
  • 42
    Prat A, Perou CM. Mammary development meets cancer genomics. Nat Med 2009; 15: 8424.
  • 43
    Key TJ, Appleby PN, Reeves GK, Roddam A, Dorgan JF, Longcope C, Stanczyk FZ, Stephenson HE, Jr, Falk RT, Miller R, Schatzkin A, Allen DS, et al. Body mass index, serum sex hormones, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95: 121826.
  • 44
    Siiteri PK. Adipose tissue as a source of hormones. Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 45: 27782.
  • 45
    Cleland WH, Mendelson CR, Simpson ER. Effects of aging and obesity on aromatase activity of human adipose cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985; 60: 1747.
  • 46
    Tworoger SS, Missmer SA, Barbieri RL, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Hankinson SE. Plasma sex hormone concentrations and subsequent risk of breast cancer among women using postmenopausal hormones. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97: 5952.
  • 47
    Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, Barbieri RL, Speizer FE. Plasma sex steroid hormone levels and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 12929.
  • 48
    Elgar FJ, Stewart JM. Validity of self-report screening for overweight and obesity. Evidence from the Canadian community health survey. Can J Public Health 2008; 99: 4237.
  • 49
    Must A, Willett WC, Dietz WH. Remote recall of childhood height, weight, and body build by elderly subjects. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 138: 5664.
  • 50
    Elledge RM, Green S, Pugh R, Allred DC, Clark GM, Hill J, Ravdin P, Martino S, Osborne CK. Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR), by ligand-binding assay compared with ER, PgR and pS2, by immuno-histochemistry in predicting response to tamoxifen in metastatic breast cancer: a Southwest Oncology Group Study. Int J Cancer 2000; 89: 1117.