• 1
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, Gordon DJ, Krauss RM, Savage PJ, Smith SC, Jr, Spertus JA, Costa F. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation 2005; 112: 273552.
  • 2
    Agnoli C, Berrino F, Abagnato CA, Muti P, Panico S, Crosignani P, Krogh V. Metabolic syndrome and postmenopausal breast cancer in the ORDET cohort: a nested case-control study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2010; 20: 418.
  • 3
    Maiti B, Kundranda MN, Spiro TP, Daw HA. The association of metabolic syndrome with triple-negative breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2010; 121: 47983.
  • 4
    Healy LA, Ryan AM, Carroll P, Ennis D, Crowley V, Boyle T, Kennedy MJ, Connolly E, Reynolds JV. Metabolic syndrome, central obesity and insulin resistance are associated with adverse pathological features in postmenopausal breast cancer. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2010; 22: 2818.
  • 5
    Pasanisi P, Berrino F, De Petris M, Venturelli E, Mastroianni A, Panico S. Metabolic syndrome as a prognostic factor for breast cancer recurrences. Int J Cancer 2006; 119: 2368.
  • 6
    Bjorge T, Lukanova A, Jonsson H, Tretli S, Ulmer H, Manjer J, Stocks T, Selmer R, Nagel G, Almquist M, Concin H, Hallmans G, et al. Metabolic syndrome and breast cancer in the me-can (metabolic syndrome and cancer) project. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010; 19: 173745.
  • 7
    Ervin RB. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults 20 years of age and over, by sex, age, race and ethnicity, and body mass index: United States, 2003–2006. Natl Health Stat Report 2009: 17.
  • 8
    Cowey S, Hardy RW. The metabolic syndrome: a high-risk state for cancer? Am J Pathol 2006; 169: 150522.
  • 9
    Shukla A, Grisouard J, Ehemann V, Hermani A, Enzmann H, Mayer D. Analysis of signaling pathways related to cell proliferation stimulated by insulin analogs in human mammary epithelial cell lines. Endocr Relat Cancer 2009; 16: 42941.
  • 10
    Strange KS, Wilkinson D, Emerman JT. Mitogenic properties of insulin-like growth factors I and II, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and epidermal growth factor on human breast epithelial cells in primary culture. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2002; 75: 20312.
  • 11
    Hu X, Juneja SC, Maihle NJ, Cleary MP. Leptin–a growth factor in normal and malignant breast cells and for normal mammary gland development. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 170411.
  • 12
    Tang X, Zhang Q, Shi S, Yen Y, Li X, Zhang Y, Zhou K, Le AD. Bisphosphonates suppress insulin-like growth factor 1-induced angiogenesis via the HIF-1alpha/VEGF signaling pathways in human breast cancer cells. Int J Cancer 2010; 126: 90103.
  • 13
    Cao R, Brakenhielm E, Wahlestedt C, Thyberg J, Cao Y. Leptin induces vascular permeability and synergistically stimulates angiogenesis with FGF-2 and VEGF. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001; 98: 63905.
  • 14
    Brown RS, Wahl RL. Overexpression of Glut-1 glucose transporter in human breast cancer. An immunohistochemical study. Cancer 1993; 72: 297985.
  • 15
    Piche ME, Lemieux S, Weisnagel SJ, Corneau L, Nadeau A, Bergeron J. Relation of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and fibrinogen to abdominal adipose tissue, blood pressure, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Am J Cardiol 2005; 96: 927.
  • 16
    Abdilla N, Tormo MC, Fabia MJ, Chaves FJ, Saez G, Redon J. Impact of the components of metabolic syndrome on oxidative stress and enzymatic antioxidant activity in essential hypertension. J Hum Hypertens 2007; 21: 6875.
  • 17
    Menon V, Ram M, Dorn J, Armstrong D, Muti P, Freudenheim JL, Browne R, Schunemann H, Trevisan M. Oxidative stress and glucose levels in a population-based sample. Diabet Med 2004; 21: 134652.
  • 18
    Huang Z, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Manson JE, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Hankinson SE. Waist circumference, waist: hip ratio, and risk of breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 150: 131624.
  • 19
    Muti P, Quattrin T, Grant BJ, Krogh V, Micheli A, Schunemann HJ, Ram M, Freudenheim JL, Sieri S, Trevisan M, Berrino F. Fasting glucose is a risk factor for breast cancer: a prospective study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11: 13618.
  • 20
    Furberg AS, Veierod MB, Wilsgaard T, Bernstein L, Thune I. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, metabolic profile, and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004; 96: 115260.
  • 21
    Russo A, Autelitano M, Bisanti L. Metabolic syndrome and cancer risk. Eur J Cancer 2008; 44: 2937.
  • 22
    Kabat GC, Kim M, Chlebowski RT, Khandekar J, Ko MG, McTiernan A, Neuhouser ML, Parker DR, Shikany JM, Stefanick ML, Thomson CA, Rohan TE. A longitudinal study of the metabolic syndrome and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18: 204653.
  • 23
    Boyd NF, Stone J, Martin LJ, Jong R, Fishell E, Yaffe M, Hammond G, Minkin S. The association of breast mitogens with mammographic densities. Br J Cancer 2002; 87: 87682.
  • 24
    Boyd NF, Lockwood GA, Byng JW, Tritchler DL, Yaffe MJ. Mammographic densities and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998; 7: 113344.
  • 25
    Byrne C, Schairer C, Wolfe J, Parekh N, Salane M, Brinton LA, Hoover R, Haile R. Mammographic features and breast cancer risk: effects with time, age, and menopause status. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995; 87: 16229.
  • 26
    Vachon CM, Kuni CC, Anderson K, Anderson VE, Sellers TA. Association of mammographically defined percent breast density with epidemiologic risk factors for breast cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11: 65362.
  • 27
    Furberg AS, Jasienska G, Bjurstam N, Torjesen PA, Emaus A, Lipson SF, Ellison PT, Thune I. Metabolic and hormonal profiles: HDL cholesterol as a plausible biomarker of breast cancer risk. The Norwegian EBBA Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 3340.
  • 28
    Boyd NF, Connelly P, Byng J, Yaffe M, Draper H, Little L, Jones D, Martin LJ, Lockwood G, Tritchler D. Plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and mammographic densities. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1995; 4: 72733.
  • 29
    Sowers MF, Crawford S, Sternfeld B, Morgenstein D, Gold EB, Greendale G, Evans DB, Neer R, Matthews K, Sherman S, Lo A, Weiss G, et al. SWAN: a multi-center, multi-ethnic, community-based cohort study of women and the menopausal transition. In: LoboRA, KelseyJ, MarcusR, eds. Menopause: Biology and Pathobiology, 1st edn. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc, 2000. 17588.
  • 30
    Haiman CA, Bernstein L, Berg D, Ingles SA, Salane M, Ursin G. Genetic determinants of mammographic density. Breast Cancer Res 2002; 4: R5.
  • 31
    Ursin G, Astrahan MA, Salane M, Parisky YR, Pearce JG, Daniels JR, Pike MC, Spicer DV. The detection of changes in mammographic densities. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998; 7: 437.
  • 32
    Wellings SR, Wolfe JN. Correlative studies of the histological and radiographic appearance of the breast parenchyma. Radiology 1978; 129: 299306.
  • 33
    Steiner PM, Friedel J, Bremner WF, Stein EA. Standardization of micro-methods for plasma-cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol with the lipid research clinics methodology. J Clin Chem Clin Bio 1981; 19: 850.
  • 34
    Warnick GR, Albers JJ. A comprehensive evaluation of the heparin-manganese precipitation procedure for estimating high density lipoprotein cholesterol. J Lipid Res 1978; 19: 6576.
  • 35
    Santoro N, Torrens J, Crawford S, Allsworth JE, Finkelstein JS, Gold EB, Korenman S, Lasley WL, Luborsky JL, McConnell D, Sowers MF, Weiss G. Correlates of circulating androgens in mid-life women: the study of women's health across the nation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90: 483645.
  • 36
    Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) Final Report. Circulation 2002; 106: 3143421.
  • 37
    Haffner SM. Progress in population analyses of the insulin resistance syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1997; 827: 112.
  • 38
    Sternfeld B, Ainsworth BE, Quesenberry CP. Physical activity patterns in a diverse population of women. Prev Med 1999; 28: 31323.
  • 39
    Carroll S, Dudfield M. What is the relationship between exercise and metabolic abnormalities? A review of the metabolic syndrome. Sports Med 2004; 34: 371418.
  • 40
    Ferris BG. Epidemiology Standardization Project (American Thoracic Society). Am Rev Respir Dis 1978; 118: 1120.
  • 41
    Coghlin J, Hammond SK, Gann PH. Development of epidemiologic tools for measuring environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Am J Epidemiol 1989; 130: 696704.
  • 42
    Vachon CM, Brandt KR, Ghosh K, Scott CG, Maloney SD, Carston MJ, Pankratz VS, Sellers TA. Mammographic breast density as a general marker of breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16: 439.
  • 43
    Habel LA, Capra AM, Oestreicher N, Greendale GA, Cauley JA, Bromberger J, Crandall CJ, Gold EB, Modugno F, Salane M, Quesenberry C, Sternfeld B. Mammographic density in a multiethnic cohort. Menopause 2007; 14: 8919.
  • 44
    Tseng M, Byrne C. Adiposity, adult weight gain, and mammographic breast density in US chinese women. Int J Cancer 2011; 128: 41825.
  • 45
    Harvie M, Hooper L, Howell AH. Central obesity and breast cancer risk: a systematic review. Obes Rev 2003; 4: 15773.
  • 46
    Boyd NF, Martin LJ, Sun L, Guo H, Chiarelli A, Hislop G, Yaffe M, Minkin S. Body size, mammographic density, and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15: 208692.
  • 47
    Soler NG, Khardori R. Fibrous disease of the breast, thyroiditis, and cheiroarthropathy in type I diabetes mellitus. Lancet 1984; 1: 1935.
  • 48
    Roubidoux MA, Kaur JS, Griffith KA, Sloan J, Wilson C, Novotny P, Lobell M. Correlates of mammogram density in southwestern Native-American women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12: 5528.
  • 49
    Sellers TA, Jensen LE, Vierkant RA, Fredericksen ZS, Brandt KR, Giuliano AR, Pankratz VS, Cerhan JR, Vachon CM. Association of diabetes with mammographic breast density and breast cancer in the Minnesota breast cancer family study. Cancer Causes Control 2007; 18: 50515.
  • 50
    Tamburrini AL, Woolcott CG, Boyd NF, Yaffe MJ, Terry T, Yasui Y, Jones CA, Patten SB, Courneya KS, Friedenreich CM. Associations between mammographic density and serum and dietary cholesterol. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2011; 125: 1819.