• 1
    Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ. Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 162538.
  • 2
    Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999–2002. JAMA 2004; 291: 284750.
  • 3
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2000. JAMA 2002; 288: 17237.
  • 4
    Ogden CL, Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in overweight among US children and adolescents, 1999–2000. JAMA 2002; 288: 172832.
  • 5
    Reeves GK, Pirie K, Beral V, Green J, Spencer E, Bull D, Million Women Study Collaboration. Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study. BMJ 2007; 335: 1134.
  • 6
    Samanic C, Chow WH, Gridley G, Jarvholm B, Fraumeni JF, Jr. Relation of body mass index to cancer risk in 362,552 Swedish men. Cancer Causes Control 2006; 17: 9019.
  • 7
    Dennis LK, Lowe JB, Lynch CF, Alavanja MC. Cutaneous melanoma and obesity in the agricultural health study. Ann Epidemiol 2008; 18: 21421.
  • 8
    Renehan AG, Tyson M, Egger M, Heller RF, Zwahlen M. Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet 2008; 371: 56978.
  • 9
    Gogas H, Trakatelli M, Dessypris N, Terzidis A, Katsambas A, Chrousos GP, Petridou ET. Melanoma risk in association with serum leptin levels and lifestyle parameters: a case-control study. Ann Oncol 2008; 19: 3849.
  • 10
    Mantzoros CS, Trakatelli M, Gogas H, Dessypris N, Stratigos A, Chrousos GP, Petridou ET. Circulating adiponectin levels in relation to melanoma: a case-control study. Eur J Cancer 2007; 43: 14306.
  • 11
    Oh SW, Yoon YS, Shin SA. Effects of excess weight on cancer incidences depending on cancer sites and histologic findings among men: Korea National Health Insurance Corporation Study. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 474254.
  • 12
    Samanic C, Gridley G, Chow WH, Lubin J, Hoover RN, Fraumeni JF, Jr. Obesity and cancer risk among white and black United States veterans. Cancer Causes Control 2004; 15: 3543.
  • 13
    Kirkpatrick CS, White E, Lee JA. Case-control study of malignant melanoma in Washington State. II. Diet, alcohol, and obesity. Am J Epidemiol 1994; 139: 86980.
  • 14
    Elizabeth LB, Jian-Wei G, Lauren C, Zhi H, Gray W, John EH. Obesity promotes melanoma tumor growth Role of leptin. Cancer Biol Ther 2009; 8: 19.
  • 15
    Vijayakumar MV, Pandey V, Mishra GC, Bhat MK. Hypolipidemic activity of fenugreek seeds is mediated through inhibition of fat accumulation and upregulation of LDL-receptor. Obesity (Silver spring) 2010; 18: 66774.
  • 16
    Stattin P, Lukanova A, Biessy C, Soderberg S, Palmqvist R, Kaaks R, Olsson T, Jellum E. Obesity and colon cancer: does leptin provide a link? Int J Cancer 2004; 109: 14952.
  • 17
    Chang S, Hursting SD, Contois JH, Strom SS, Yamamura Y, Babaian RJ, Troncoso P, Scardino PS, Wheeler TM, Amos CI, Spitz MR. Leptin and prostate cancer. Prostate 2001; 46: 6267.
  • 18
    Saglam K, Aydur E, Yilmaz M, Goktas K. Leptin influences cellular differentiation and progression in prostate cancer. J Urology 2003; 169: 130811.
  • 19
    Catalano S, Giordano C, Rizza P, Gu G, Barone I, Bonofiglio D, Giordano F, Malivindi R, Gaccione D, Lanzino M, De Amicis F, Andò S. Evidence that leptin through STAT and CREB signalling enhances cyclin D1 expression and promotes human endometrial cancer proliferation. J Cell Physiol 2009; 218: 490500.
  • 20
    Saxena NK, Sharma D, Ding X, Lin S, Marra F, Merlin D, Anania FA. Concomitant activation of the JAK/STAT, PI3K/AKT, and ERK signalling is involved in leptin-mediated promotion of invasion and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Cancer Res 2007; 67: 2497507.
  • 21
    Saxena NK, Vertino PM, Anania FA, Sharma D. Leptin-induced growth stimulation of breast cancer cells involves recruitment of histone acetyl transferases and mediator complex to CYCLIN D1 promoter via activation of Stat3. J Biol Chem 2007; 282: 1331625.
  • 22
    Upadhyay AK, Singh S, Chhipa RR, Vijayakumar MV, Ajay AK, Bhat MK. Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin enhances the susceptibility of human breast cancer cells to carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil: involvement of Akt, NF-kappaB and Bcl-2. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2006; 216: 17785.
  • 23
    Box NF, Terzian T. The role of p53 in pigmentation, tanning and melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2008; 21: 52533.
  • 24
    Carvalho MA, Zecchin KG, Seguin F, Bastos DC, Agostini M, Rangel ALCA, Veiga SS, Raposo HF, Oliveira HCF, Loda M, Coletta RD, Graner E. Fatty acid synthase inhibition with Orlistat promotes apoptosis and reduces cell growth and lymph node metastasis in a mouse melanoma model. Int J Cancer 2008; 123: 255765.
  • 25
    Ho TS, Ho YP, Wong WY, Chi-Ming Chiu L, Wong YS, Eng-Choon Ooi V. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors cerulenin and C75 retard growth and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in human melanoma A-375 cells. Biomed Pharmacother 2007; 61: 57887.
  • 26
    Di Vizio D, Adam RM, Kim J, Kim R, Sotgia F, Williams T, Demichelis F, Solomon KR, Loda M, Rubin MA, Lisanti MP, Freeman MR. Caveolin-1 interacts with a lipid raft-associated population of fatty acid synthase. Cell Cycle 2008; 7: 225767.
  • 27
    Di Vizio D, Sotgia F, Williams TM, Hassan GS, Capozza F, Frank PG, Pestell RG, Loda M, Freeman MR, Lisanti MP. Caveolin-1 is required for the upregulation of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a tumor promoter, during prostate cancer progression. Cancer Biol Ther 2007; 6: 12638.
  • 28
    Razani B, Combs TP, Wang XB, Frank PG, Park DS, Russel RG, Li M, Tang B, Jelicks LA, Scherer PE, Lisanti MP. Caveolin-1 deficient mice are lean, resistant to diet induced obesity and show hypertriglyceridemia with adipocyte abnormalities. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 863547.
  • 29
    Quest A, Gutierrez-Pajares JL, Torres V. Caveolin-1, an ambiguous partner in cell signalling and cancer. J Cell Mol Med 2008; 12: 113050.
  • 30
    Williams TM, Cheung MW, Park DS, Razani B, Cohen AW, Muller WJ, Di Vizio D, Chopra NG, Pestell RG, Lisanti MP. Loss of caveolin-1 gene expression accelerates the development of dysplastic mammary lesions in tumor-prone transgenic mice. Mol Biol Cell 2003; 14: 102742.
  • 31
    Williams TM, Sotgia F, Lee H, Hassan G, Di Vizio D, Bonuccelli G, Capozza F, Mercier I, Rui H, Pestell RG, Lisanti MP. Stromal and epithelial caveolin-1 both confer a protective effect against mammary hyperplasia and tumorigenesis: caveolin-1 antagonizes cyclin D1 function in mammary epithelial cells. Am J Pathol 2006; 169: 1784801.
  • 32
    Rajjayabun PH, Garg S, Durkan GC, Charlton R, Robinson MC, Mellon JK. Caveolin-1 expression is associated with high-grade bladder cancer. Urology 2001; 58: 8114.
  • 33
    Fong A, Garcia E, Gwynn L, Lisanti MP, Fazzari MJ, Li M. Expression of caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder correlates with tumor grade and squamous differentiation. Am J Clin Pathol 2003; 120: 93100.
  • 34
    Hu YC, Lam KY, Law S, Wong J, Srivastava G. Profiling of differentially expressed cancer-related genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) using human cancer cDNA arrays: overexpression of oncogene MET correlates with tumor differentiation in ESCC. Clin Cancer Res 2001; 7: 351925.
  • 35
    Kato K, Hida Y, Miyamoto M, Hashida H, Shinohara T, Itoh T, Okushiba S, Kondo S, Katoh H. Overexpression of caveolin-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma correlates with lymph node metastasis and pathologic stage. Cancer 2002; 94: 92933.
  • 36
    Yang G, Truong LD, Wheeler TM, Thompson TC. Caveolin-1 expression in clinically confined human prostate cancer: a novel prognostic marker. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 571923.
  • 37
    Felicetti F, Parolini I, Bottero L, Fecchi K, Errico MC, Raggi C, Biffoni M, Spadaro F, Lisanti MP, Sargiacomo M, Carè A. Caveolin-1 tumor-promoting role in human melanoma. Int J Cancer 2009; 125: 151422.
  • 38
    Nakashima H, Hamamura K, Houjou T, Taguchi R, Yamamoto N, Mitsudo K, Tohnai I, Ueda M, Urano T, Furukawa K. Overexpression of caveolin-1 in a human melanoma cell line results in dispersion of ganglioside GD3 from lipid rafts and alteration of leading edges, leading to attenuation of malignant properties. Cancer Sci 2007; 98: 51220.
  • 39
    Woodman SE, Ashton AW, Schubert W, Lee H, Williams TM, Medina FA, Wyckoff JB, Combs TP, Lisanti MP. Caveolin-1 knockout mice show an impaired angiogenic response to exogenous stimuli. Am J Pathol 2003; 162: 205968.
  • 40
    Liu P, Li WP, Machleidt T, Anderson RG. Identification of caveolin-1 in lipoprotein particles secreted by exocrine cells. Nat Cell Biol 1999; 1: 36975.
  • 41
    Sawada N, Taketani Y, Amizuka N, Ichikawa M, Ogawa C, Nomoto K, Nashiki K, Sato T, Arai H, Isshiki M, Segawa H, Yamamoto H, Miyamoto K, Takeda E. Caveolin-1 in extracellular matrix vesicles secreted from osteoblasts. Bone 2007; 41: 528.
  • 42
    Aoki N, Jin-no S, Nakagawa Y, Asai N, Arakawa E, Tamura N, Tamura T, Matsuda T. Identification and characterization of microvesicles secreted by 3T3-L1 adipocytes: redox- and hormone-dependent induction of milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8-associated microvesicles. Endocrinology 2007; 148: 385062.
  • 43
    Loftus TM, Jaworsky DE, Frehywot GL, Townsend CA, Ronnett GV, Lane MD, Kuhajda FP. Reduced food intake and body weight in mice treated with fatty acid synthase inhibitors. Science 2000; 288: 237981.
  • 44
    Mobbs CV, Makimura H. Block the FAS, lose the fat. Nat Med 2002; 8: 3356.
  • 45
    Sheng H, Shao J, Townsend CM, Jr, Evers BM. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase mediates proliferative signals in intestinal epithelial cells. Gut 2003; 52: 147278.
  • 46
    Lin HJ, Hsieh FC, Song H, Lin J. Elevated phosphorylation and activation of PDK-1/AKT pathway in human breast cancer. Br J Cancer 2005; 93: 137281.
  • 47
    Li L, Ren CH, Tahir SA, Ren C, Thompson TC. Caveolin-1 maintains activated Akt in prostate cancer cells through scaffolding domain bindingsite interactions with and inhibition of serine/threonine protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A. Mol Cell Biol 2003; 23: 9389404.
  • 48
    Kim HA, Kim KH, Lee RA. Expression of caveolin-1 is correlated with Akt- 1 in colorectal cancer tissues. Exp Mol Pathol 2006; 80: 16570.
  • 49
    Fiorentino M, Zadra G, Palescandolo E, Fedele G, Bailey D, Fiore C, Nguyen PL, Migita T, Zamponi R, Di Vizio D, Priolo C, Sharma C, Xie W, Hemler ME, Mucci L, Giovannucci E, Finn S, Loda M. Overexpression of fatty acid synthase is associated with palmitoylation of Wnt1 and cytoplasmic stabilisation of beta catenin in prostate cancer. Lab Invest 2008; 88: 134048.
  • 50
    Breuer P, Braulke T. Stabilization of mutant 46-kDa mannose-6-phosphate receptors by proteasomal inhibitor lactacystin. J Biol Chem 1998; 273: 332548.