• 1
    Boyd NF, Rommens JM, Vogt K, Lee V, Hopper JL, Yaffe MJ, Paterson AD. Mammographic breast density as an intermediate phenotype for breast cancer. Lancet Oncol 2005; 6: 798808.
  • 2
    McCormack VA, dos Santos Silva I. Breast density and parenchymal patterns as markers of breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15: 115969.
  • 3
    Byrne C, Schairer C, Wolfe J, Parekh N, Salane M, Brinton LA, Hoover R, Haile R. Mammographic features and breast cancer risk: effects with time, age, and menopause status. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995; 87: 16229.
  • 4
    Boyd NF, Lockwood GA, Byng JW, Tritchler DL, Yaffe MJ. Mammographic densities and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998; 7: 113344.
  • 5
    Fabian CJ, Kimler BF. Use of biomarkers for breast cancer risk assessment and prevention. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2007; 106: 319.
  • 6
    Barlow WE, White E, Ballard-Barbash R, Vacek PM, Titus-Ernstoff L, Carney PA, Tice JA, Buist DS, Geller BM, Rosenberg R, Yankaskas BC, Kerlikowske K. Prospective breast cancer risk prediction model for women undergoing screening mammography. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006; 98: 120414.
  • 7
    Chen J, Pee D, Ayyagari R, Graubard B, Schairer C, Byrne C, Benichou J, Gail MH. Projecting absolute invasive breast cancer risk in white women with a model that includes mammographic density. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006; 98: 121526.
  • 8
    Tice JA, Cummings SR, Ziv E, Kerlikowske K. Mammographic breast density and the Gail model for breast cancer risk prediction in a screening population. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2005; 94: 11522.
  • 9
    Calle EE, Kaaks R. Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer 2004; 4: 57991.
  • 10
    Lorincz AM, Sukumar S. Molecular links between obesity and breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer 2006; 13: 27992.
  • 11
    Wong CS, Lim GH, Gao F, Jakes RW, Offman J, Chia KS, Duffy SW. Mammographic density and its interaction with other breast cancer risk factors in an Asian population. Br J Cancer 2011; 104: 8714.
  • 12
    Kotsuma Y, Tamaki Y, Nishimura T, Tsubai M, Ueda S, Shimazu K, Jin Kim S, Miyoshi Y, Tanji Y, Taguchi T, Noguchi S. Quantitative assessment of mammographic density and breast cancer risk for Japanese women. Breast 2008; 17: 2735.
  • 13
    Duffy SW, Jakes RW, Ng FC, Gao F. Interaction of dense breast patterns with other breast cancer risk factors in a case-control study. Br J Cancer 2004; 91: 2336.
  • 14
    Maskarinec G, Pagano I, Lurie G, Wilkens LR, Kolonel LN. Mammographic density and breast cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study. Am J Epidemiol 2005; 162: 74352.
  • 15
    Ursin G, Ma H, Wu AH, Bernstein L, Salane M, Parisky YR, Astrahan M, Siozon CC, Pike MC. Mammographic density and breast cancer in three ethnic groups. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12: 3328.
  • 16
    Haars G, van Noord PA, van Gils CH, Grobbee DE, Peeters PH. Measurements of breast density: no ratio for a ratio. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 263440.
  • 17
    Tseng M, Byrne C. Adiposity, adult weight gain, and mammographic breast density in US chinese women. Int J Cancer 2010; 128: 41825.
  • 18
    Woolcott CG, Cook LS, Courneya KS, Boyd NF, Yaffe MJ, Terry T, Brant R, McTiernan A, Bryant HE, Magliocco AM, Friedenreich CM. Associations of overall and abdominal adiposity with area and volumetric mammographic measures among postmenopausal women. Int J Cancer 2010; 129: 4408.
  • 19
    Guest AR, Helvie MA, Chan HP, Hadjiiski LM, Bailey JE, Roubidoux MA. Adverse effects of increased body weight on quantitative measures of mammographic image quality. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000; 175: 80510.
  • 20
    Vachon CM, Brandt KR, Ghosh K, Scott CG, Maloney SD, Carston MJ, Pankratz VS, Sellers TA. Mammographic breast density as a general marker of breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16: 439.
  • 21
    Nagata C, Matsubara T, Fujita H, Nagao Y, Shibuya C, Kashiki Y, Shimizu H. Mammographic density and the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women. Br J Cancer 2005; 92: 21026.
  • 22
    Kolonel LN, Henderson BE, Hankin JH, Nomura AM, Wilkens LR, Pike MC, Stram DO, Monroe KR, Earle ME, Nagamine FS. A multiethnic cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles: baseline characteristics. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 151: 34657.
  • 23
    Byng JW, Boyd NF, Fishell E, Jong RA, Yaffe MJ. The quantitative analysis of mammographic densities. Phys Med Biol 1994; 39: 162938.
  • 24
    Ursin G, Astrahan MA, Salane M, Parisky YR, Pearce JG, Daniels JR, Pike MC, Spicer DV. The detection of changes in mammographic densities. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998; 7: 437.
  • 25
    Matsubara T, Yamazaki D, Fujita H, Hara T, Iwase T, Endo T. An automated classification method for mammograms based on evaluation of fibroglandular breast tissue density In: Yaffe MJ, ed. Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Digital Mammography. Madison: Medical Physics Publishing, 2000. 73741
  • 26
    Byng JW, Boyd NF, Little L, Lockwood G, Fishell E, Jong RA, Yaffe MJ. Symmetry of projection in the quantitative analysis of mammographic images. Eur J Cancer Prev 1996; 5: 31927.
  • 27
    Huxley R, James WP, Barzi F, Patel JV, Lear SA, Suriyawongpaisal P, Janus E, Caterson I, Zimmet P, Prabhakaran D, Reddy S, Woodward M. Ethnic comparisons of the cross-sectional relationships between measures of body size with diabetes and hypertension. Obes Rev 2008; 9 ( Suppl 1): 5361.
  • 28
    Maskarinec G, Erber E, Grandinetti A, Verheus M, Oum R, Hopping BN, Schmidt MM, Uchida A, Juarez DT, Hodges K, Kolonel LN. Diabetes incidence based on linkages with health plans: the multiethnic cohort. Diabetes 2009; 58: 17328.
  • 29
    WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet 2004; 363: 15763.
  • 30
    Pike MC, Kolonel LN, Henderson BE, Wilkens LR, Hankin JH, Feigelson HS, Wan PC, Stram DO, Nomura AM. Breast cancer in a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles: risk factor-adjusted incidence in Japanese equals and in Hawaiians exceeds that in whites. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11: 795800.
  • 31
    Vachon CM, Kuni CC, Anderson K, Anderson VE, Sellers TA. Association of mammographically defined percent breast density with epidemiologic risk factors for breast cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11: 65362.
  • 32
    Stone J, Warren RM, Pinney E, Warwick J, Cuzick J. Determinants of percentage and area measures of mammographic density. Am J Epidemiol 2009; 170: 15718.
  • 33
    Stone J, Ding J, Warren RM, Duffy SW, Hopper JL. Using mammographic density to predict breast cancer risk: dense area or percentage dense area. Breast Cancer Res 2010; 12: R97.
  • 34
    Robinson M, Kotre CJ. Trends in compressed breast thickness and radiation dose in breast screening mammography. Br J Radiol 2008; 81: 2148.
  • 35
    Stuedal A, Ma H, Bernstein L, Pike MC, Ursin G. Does breast size modify the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk? Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17: 6217.
  • 36
    Chen Z, Wu AH, Gauderman WJ, Bernstein L, Ma H, Pike MC, Ursin G. Does mammographic density reflect ethnic differences in breast cancer incidence rates? Am J Epidemiol 2004; 159: 1407.
  • 37
    Maskarinec G, Meng L, Ursin G. Ethnic differences in mammographic densities. Int J Epidemiol 2001; 30: 95965.
  • 38
    Boyd N, Martin L, Gunasekara A, Melnichouk O, Maudsley G, Peressotti C, Yaffe M, Minkin S. Mammographic density and breast cancer risk: evaluation of a novel method of measuring breast tissue volumes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18: 175462.
  • 39
    Ding J, Warren R, Warsi I, Day N, Thompson D, Brady M, Tromans C, Highnam R, Easton D. Evaluating the effectiveness of using standard mammogram form to predict breast cancer risk: case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17: 107481.
  • 40
    Lokate M, Kallenberg MG, Karssemeijer N, Van den Bosch MA, Peeters PH, Van Gils CH. Volumetric breast density from full-field digital mammograms and its association with breast cancer risk factors: a comparison with a threshold method. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010; 19: 3096105.
  • 41
    Key TJ, Appleby PN, Reeves GK, Roddam A, Dorgan JF, Longcope C, Stanczyk FZ, Stephenson HE, Jr, Falk RT, Miller R, Schatzkin A, Allen DS, et al. Body mass index, serum sex hormones, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95: 121826.
  • 42
    Boyd NF, Stone J, Martin LJ, Jong R, Fishell E, Yaffe M, Hammond G, Minkin S. The association of breast mitogens with mammographic densities. Br J Cancer 2002; 87: 87682.
  • 43
    Tamimi RM, Byrne C, Colditz GA, Hankinson SE. Endogenous hormone levels, mammographic density, and subsequent risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007; 99: 117887.
  • 44
    Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ. Validity of self-reported height and weight in 4808 EPIC-Oxford participants. Public Health Nutr 2002; 5: 5615.