• 1
    Ademuyiwa FO, Olopade OI. Racial differences in genetic factors associated with breast cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev 2003; 22: 4753.
  • 2
    Ijaduola TG, Smith EB. Pattern of breast cancer among white-American, African-American, and nonimmigrant west-African women. J Natl Med Assoc 1998; 90: 54751.
  • 3
    Trock BJ. Breast cancer in African American women: epidemiology and tumor biology. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1996; 40: 1124.
  • 4
    Adebamowo CA, Adekunle OO. Case-controlled study of the epidemiological risk factors for breast cancer in Nigeria. Br J Surg 1999; 86: 6658.
  • 5
    Anim JT. Breast cancer in sub-Saharan African women. Afr J Med Med Sci 1993; 22: 510.
  • 6
    Easton DF, Ford D, Bishop DT. Breast and ovarian cancer incidence in BRCA1-mutation carriers. Breast cancer linkage consortium. Am J Hum Genet 1995; 56: 26571.
  • 7
    Miki Y, Swensen J, Shattuck ED, Futreal PA, Harshman K, Tavtigian S, Liu Q, Cochran C, Bennett LM, Ding W, Bell R, Rosenthal J. A strong candidate for the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1. Science 1994; 266: 6671.
  • 8
    Schubert EL, Lee MK, Mefford HC, Argonza RH, Morrow JE, Hull J, Dann JL, King MC. BRCA2 in American families with four or more cases of breast or ovarian cancer: recurrent and novel mutations, variable expression, penetrance, and the possibility of families whose cancer is not attributable to BRCA1 or BRCA2 [see comments]. Am J Hum Genet 1997; 60: 103140.
  • 9
    Wooster R, Bignell G, Lancaster J, Swift S, Seal S, Mangion J, Collins N, Gregory S, Gumbs C, Micklem G. Identification of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2. Nature 1995; 378: 78992.
  • 10
    Armes JE, Egan AJ, Southey MC, Dite GS, McCredie MR, Giles GG, Hopper JL, Venter DJ. The histologic phenotypes of breast carcinoma occurring before age 40 years in women with and without BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutations: a population-based study. [see comments]. Cancer 1998; 83: 233545.
  • 11
    Lakhani SR, Jacquemier J, Sloane JP, Gusterson BA, Anderson TJ, van de Vijver MJ, Farid LM, Venter D, Antoniou A, Storfer-Isser A, Smyth E, Steel CM, et al. Multifactorial analysis of differences between sporadic breast cancers and cancers involving BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations [see comments]. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 113845.
  • 12
    Phillips KA. Immunophenotypic and pathologic differences between BRCA1 and BRCA2 hereditary breast cancers. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18: 107S12S.
  • 13
    Fackenthal JD, Olopade OI. Breast cancer risk associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 in diverse populations. Nat Rev Cancer 2007; 7: 93748.
  • 14
    Gao Q, Tomlinson G, Das S, Cummings S, Sveen L, Fackenthal J, Schumm P, Olopade O. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among clinic-based African American families with breast cancer. Hum Genet 2000; 107: 18691.
  • 15
    Pal T, Permuth-Wey J, Holtje T, Sutphen R. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a study of African American breast cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004; 13: 17949.
  • 16
    Haffty BG, Silber A, Matloff E, Chung J, Lannin D. Racial differences in the incidence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a cohort of early onset breast cancer patients: African American compared to white women. J Med Genet 2006; 43: 1337.
  • 17
    Malone KE, Daling JR, Doody DR, Hsu L, Bernstein L, Coates RJ, Marchbanks PA, Simon MS, McDonald JA, Norman SA, Strom BL, Burkman RT, et al. Prevalence and predictors of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a population-based study of breast cancer in white and black American women ages 35 to 64 years. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 8297308.
  • 18
    Mu H, Newman B, Rousseau C, Payne S, Gordon K, Gold D, Tse C-KJ, Millikan RC, King M-C. Frequency of breast cancer attriabutable to BRCA1 and BRCA2 in a population-based series of Caucasian and African-American women. Am J Hum Genet 1999; 65 ( Suppl): A21.
  • 19
    Nanda R, Schumm LP, Cummings S, Fackenthal JD, Sveen L, Ademuyiwa F, Cobleigh M, Esserman L, Lindor NM, Neuhausen SL, Olopade OI. Genetic testing in an ethnically diverse cohort of high-risk women: a comparative analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in American families of European and African ancestry. JAMA 2005; 294: 192533.
  • 20
    Neuhausen SL, Ostrander EA. Department of Medical Informatics UoUSoMSLCUSA. Mutation testing of early-onset breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Genet Test 1997; 1:7583.
  • 21
    Walsh T, Casadei S, Coats KH, Swisher E, Stray SM, Higgins J, Roach KC, Mandell J, Lee MK, Ciernikova S, Foretova L, Soucek P, et al. Spectrum of mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and TP53 in families at high risk of breast cancer. JAMA 2006; 295: 137988.
  • 22
    John EM, Miron A, Gong G, Phipps AI, Felberg A, Li FP, West DW, Whittemore AS. Prevalence of pathogenic BRCA1 mutation carriers in 5 US racial/ethnic groups. JAMA 2007; 298: 286976.
  • 23
    Adebamowo CA, Ogundiran TO, Adenipekun AA, Oyesegun RA, Campbell OB, Akang EE, Rotimi CN, Olopade OI. Waist-hip ratio and breast cancer risk in urbanized Nigerian women. Breast Cancer Res 2003; 5: R1824.
  • 24
    Fackenthal JD, Sveen L, Gao Q, Kohlmeir EK, Adebamowo C, Ogundiran TO, Adenipekun AA, Oyesegun R, Campbell O, Rotimi C, Akang EE, Das S, et al. Complete allelic analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants in young Nigerian breast cancer patients. J Med Genet 2005; 42: 27681.
  • 25
    Zhang J, Fackenthal JD, Huo D, Zheng Y, Olopade OI. Searching for large genomic rearrangements of the BRCA1 gene in a Nigerian population. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2010;124:5737.
  • 26
    Papelard H, de Bock GH, van Eijk R, Vliet Vlieland TP, Cornelisse CJ, Devilee P, Tollenaar RA. Prevalence of BRCA1 in a hospital-based population of Dutch breast cancer patients. Br J Cancer 2000; 83: 71924.
  • 27
    Syrjakoski K, Vahteristo P, Eerola H, Tamminen A, Kivinummi K, Sarantaus L, Holli K, Blomqvist C, Kallioniemi OP, Kainu T, Nevanlinna H. Population-based study of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in 1035 unselected Finnish breast cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 152931.
  • 28
    Donenberg T, Lunn J, Curling D, Turnquest T, Krill-Jackson E, Royer R, Narod SA, Hurley J. A high prevalence of BRCA1 mutations among breast cancer patients from the Bahamas. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2010; 125: 5916.
  • 29
    Zhang B, Fackenthal JD, Niu Q, Huo D, Sveen WE, Demarco T, Adebamowo CA, Ogundiran T, Olopade OI. Evidence for an ancient BRCA1 mutation in breast cancer patients of yoruban ancestry. Fam Cancer 2008;8:1522.
  • 30
    Szabo C, Masiello A, Ryan JF, Brody LC. The Breast Cancer Information Core: database, design, and scope. Hum Mutat 2000;16:12331.
  • 31
    Easton DF, Deffenbaugh AM, Pruss D, Frye C, Wenstrup RJ, Allen-Brady K, Tavtigian SV, Monteiro AN, Iversen ES, Couch FJ, Goldgar DE. A systematic genetic assessment of 1,433 sequence variants of unknown clinical significance in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer-predisposition genes. Am J Hum Genet 2007; 81: 87383.
  • 32
    Lovelock PK, Spurdle AB, Mok MT, Farrugia DJ, Lakhani SR, Healey S, Arnold S, Buchanan D, Couch FJ, Henderson BR, Goldgar DE, Tavtigian SV, et al. Identification of BRCA1 missense substitutions that confer partial functional activity: potential moderate risk variants? Breast Cancer Res 2007; 9: R82.
  • 33
    Amend K, Hicks D, Ambrosone CB. Breast cancer in African-American women: differences in tumor biology from European-American women. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 832730.
  • 34
    Fregene A, Newman LA. Breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: how does it relate to breast cancer in African-American women? Cancer 2005; 103: 154050.
  • 35
    Newman LA. Breast cancer in African-American women. Oncologist 2005; 10: 114.
  • 36
    Chen VW, Correa P, Kurman RJ, Wu XC, Eley JW, Austin D, Muss H, Hunter CP, Redmond C, Sobhan M. Histological characteristics of breast carcinoma in blacks and whites. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1994; 3: 12735.
  • 37
    Joslyn SA, West MM. Racial differences in breast carcinoma survival. Cancer 2000; 88: 11423.
  • 38
    Olopade OI, Fackenthal JD, Dunston G, Tainsky MA, Collins F, Whitfield-Broome C, Center for Clinical Cancer Genetics DoMUoCMCCIUSAfmb. Breast cancer genetics in African Americans. Cancer 2003; 97 ( Suppl): 23645.
  • 39
    Wei M, Grushko TA, Dignam J, Hagos F, Nanda R, Sveen L, Xu J, Fackenthal J, Tretiakova M, Das S, Olopade OI. BRCA1 promoter methylation in sporadic breast cancer is associated with reduced BRCA1 copy number and chromosome 17 aneusomy. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 106929.
  • 40
    Matros E, Wang ZC, Lodeiro G, Miron A, Iglehart JD, Richardson AL. BRCA1 promoter methylation in sporadic breast tumors: relationship to gene expression profiles. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2005; 91: 17986.
  • 41
    Turner NC, Reis-Filho JS, Russell AM, Springall RJ, Ryder K, Steele D, Savage K, Gillett CE, Schmitt FC, Ashworth A, Tutt AN. BRCA1 dysfunction in sporadic basal-like breast cancer. Oncogene 2007; 26: 212632.