• 1
    American Cancer Society. Cancer facts & figures 2011. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, 2011.
  • 2
    Steele VE, Moon RC, Lubet RA, Grubbs CJ, Reddy BS, Wargovich M, McCormick DL, Pereira MA, Crowell JA, Bagheri D, Sigman CC, Boone CW, Kelloff GJ. Preclinical efficacy evaluation of potential chemopreventive agents in animal carcinogenesis models: methods and results from the NCI chemoprevention drug development program. J Cell Biochem 1994; Suppl 20: 3254.
  • 3
    Pereira MA, Li Y, Gunning WT, Kramer PM, Al-Yaqoub F, Lubet RA Steele VE, Szabo E, Tao L. Prevention of mouse lung tumors by budesonide and its modulation of biomarkers. Carcinogenesis 2002; 23: 118592.
  • 4
    Lu G, Xiao H, You H, Lin Y, Jin H, Snagaski B, Yang CS. Synergistic inhibition of lung tumorigenesis by a combination of green tea polyphenols and atorvastatin. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14: 49818.
  • 5
    Desai D, Das A, Cohen L, el-Bayoumy K, Amin S. Chemopreventive efficacy of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) against 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in female A/J mice. Anticancer Res 2003; 23: 499503.
  • 6
    Swamy MV, Patlolla JM, Steele VE, Kopelovich L, Reddy BS, Rao CV. Chemoprevention of familial adenomatous polyposis by low doses of atorvastatin and celecoxib given individually and in combination to APCMin mice. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 73707.
  • 7
    Pereira MA, Kramer PM, Nines R, Liu Y, Alyaqoub FS, Gunning WT, Steele VE, Lubet RA. Prevention of mouse lung tumors by targretin. Int J Cancer 2006; 118: 235962.
  • 8
    Pereira MA, Tao LH, Wang W, Gunning WT, Lubet RA. Chemoprevention: mouse colon and lung tumor bioassay and modulation of DNA methylation as a biomarker. Exp Lung Res 2005; 31: 14563.
  • 9
    el-Bayoumy K, Upadhyaya P, Desai DH, Amin S, Hoffmann D, Wynder EL. Effects of 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate, phenethyl isothiocyanate, indole-3-carbinol, and d-limonene individually and in combination on the tumorigenicity of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in A/J mouse lung. Anticancer Res 1996; 16: 270912.
  • 10
    Witschi H, Espiritu I, Uyeminami D. Chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-induced lung tumors in A/J strain mice with dietary myo-inositol and dexamethasone. Carcinogenesis 1999; 20: 13758.
  • 11
    Estensen RD, Wattenberg LW. Studies of chemopreventive effects of myo-inositol on benzo[a]pyrene-induced neoplasia of the lung and forestomach of female A/J mice. Carcinogenesis 1993; 14: 19757.
  • 12
    Wattenberg LW, Wiedmann TS, Estensen RD, Zimmerman CL, Galbraith AR, Steele VE, Kelloff GF. Chemoprevention of pulmonary carcinogenesis by brief exposures to aerosolized budesonide or beclomethasone dipropionate and by the combination of aerosolized budesonide and dietary myo-inositol. Carcinogenesis 2000; 21: 17982.
  • 13
    Alyaqoub FS, Tao L, Kramer PM, Steele VE, Lubet RA, Gunning WT, Pereira MA. Prevention of mouse lung tumors and modulation of DNA methylation by combined treatment with budesonide and R115777 (ZarnestraMT). Carcinogenesis 2006; 27: 24427.
  • 14
    D'Agostini F, Balansky M, Camoirano A, de Flora S. Interactions between N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid in modulating mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Int J Cancer 2000; 88: 7027.
  • 15
    Hecht SS, Upadhyaya P, Wang M, Bliss RL, McIntee EJ, Kenney PM. Inhibition of lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice by N-acetyl-S-(N-2-phenethylthiocarbamoyl)-L-cysteine and myo-inositol, individually and in combination. Carcinogenesis 2002; 23: 145561.
  • 16
    Kassie F, Melkamu T, Endalew A, Upadhyaya P, Luo X, Hecht SS. Inhibition of lung carcinogenesis and critical cancer-related signaling pathways by N-acetyl-S-(N-2-phenethylthiocarbamoyl)-l-cysteine, indole-3-carbinol and myo-inositol, alone and in combination. Carcinogenesis 2010; 31: 163441.
  • 17
    Cohen LA, Amin S, Marks PA, Rifkind RA, Desai D, Richon VM. Chemoprevention of carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis by the hybrid polar cytodifferentiation agent, suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA). Anticancer Res 1999; 19: 49995005.
  • 18
    Cohen LA, Marks PA, Rifkind RA, Amin S, Desai D, Pittman B, Richon VM. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suppresses the growth of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors. Anticancer Res 2002; 22: 14971504.
  • 19
    Xiao H, Yang CS. Combination regimen with statins and NSAIDs: a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention. Int J Cancer 2008; 123: 98390.
  • 20
    Karp I, Behlouli H, Lelorier J, Pilote L. Statins and cancer risk. Am J Med 2008; 121: 3029.
  • 21
    Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C. Unintended effects of statins in men and women in England and Wales: population based cohort study using the QResearch database. Brit Med J 2010; 340: c2197.
  • 22
    Limburg PJ, Mahoney MR, Ziegler KL, Sontag SJ, Schoen RE, Benya R, Lawson MJ, Weinberg DS, Stoffel E, Chiorean M, Heigh R, Levine J, Della'zanna G, Rodriguez L, Richmond E, Gostout C, Mandrekar SJ, Smyrk TC. Randomized phase II Trial of Sulindac, Atorvastatin, and prebiotic dietary fiber for colorectal cancer chemoprevention. Cancer Prev Res 2011; 4: 25969.
  • 23
    Hoffmeister M, Chang-Claude J, Brenner H. Individual and joint use of statins and low-dose aspirin and risk of colorectal cancer: a population-based case-control study. Int J Cancer 2007; 121: 132530.
  • 24
    Flick ED, Habel LA, Chan KA, Van Den Eeden SK, Quinn VP, Haque R, Orav EJ, Seeger JD, Sadler MC, Quesenberry CP, Jr, Sternfeld B, Jacobsen SJ, Whitmer RA, Caan BJ. Statin use and risk of prostate cancer in the California Men's Health Study cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16: 221825.
  • 25
    Reddy BS, Wang CX, Kong AN, Khor TO, Zheng X, Steele VE, Kopelovich L, Rao CV. Prevention of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer by combination of low doses of atorvastatin, aspirin, and celecoxib in F 344 rats. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 45426.
  • 26
    Zheng X, Cui XX, Avila GE, Huang MT, Liu Y, Patel J, Kong AN, Paulino R, Shih WJ, Lin Y, Rabson AB, Reddy BS, Conney AH. Atorvastatin and celecoxib inhibit prostate PC-3 tumors in immunodeficient mice. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13: 54807.
  • 27
    Huang EH, Johnson LA, Eaton K, Hynes MJ, Carpentino JE, Higgins PD. Atorvastatin induces apoptosis in vitro and slows growth of tumor xenografts but not polyp formation in MIN mice. Dig Dis Sci 2010; 55: 308694.
  • 28
    Alyaqoub FS, Liu Y, Tao L, Steele VE, Lubet RA, Pereira, M.A. Modulation by bexarotene of mRNA expression of genes in mouse lung tumors. Mol Carcinog 2008; 47: 16571.
  • 29
    Pereira MA, Tao L, Liu Y, Li L, Steele VE, Lubet RA. Modulation by budesonide of DNA methylation and mRNA expression in mouse lung tumors. Int J Cancer 2007; 120: 11503.
  • 30
    Tao L, Li Y, Wang W, Kramer PM, Gunning WT, Lubet RA, Steele VE, Pereira MA. Effect of budesonide on the methylation and mRNA expression of the IGF-II and c-Myc genes in mouse lung tumors. Mol Carcinog 2002; 35: 93102.
  • 31
    Deroanne CF, Bonjean K, Servotte S, Devy L, Colige A, Clausse N, Blacher S, Verdin E, Foidart JM, Nusgens BV, Castronovo V. Histone deacetylases inhibitors as anti-angiogenic agents altering vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. Oncogene 2002; 21: 42736.
  • 32
    Robertson FM, Woodward WA, Pickei R, Ye Z, Bornmann W, Pal A, Peng Z, Hall CS, Cristofanilli M. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid blocks self-renewal and homotypic aggregation of inflammatory breast cancer spheroids. Cancer 2010; 116( 11 Suppl): 27607.
  • 33
    Wang L, Zou X, Berger AD, Twiss C, Peng Y, Li Y, Chiu J, Guo H, Satagopan J, Wilton A, Gerald W, Basch R, Wang Z, Osman I, Lee P. Increased expression of histone deacetylaces (HDACs) and inhibition of prostate cancer growth and invasion by HDAC inhibitor SAHA. Am J Transl Res 2009; 1: 6271.