SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Gupta PC, Warnakulasuriya S. Global epidemiology of areca nut usage. Addict Biol 2002; 7: 7783.
  • 2
    Lee CH, Ko AM, Warnakulasuriya S, Yin BL, Sunarjo, Zain RB, Ibrahim SO, Liu ZW, Li WH, Zhang SS, Kuntoro, Utomo B, et al. Intercountry prevalences and practices of betel-quid use in south, southeast and eastern Asia regions and associated oral preneoplastic disorders: an international collaborative study by Asian betel-quid consortium of south and east Asia. Int J Cancer 2011; 129: 174151.
  • 3
    Lee PH, Chang MC, Chang WH, Wang TM, Wang YJ, Hahn LJ, Ho YS, Lin CY, Jeng JH. Prolonged exposure to arecoline arrested human KB epithelial cell growth: regulatory mechanisms of cell cycle and apoptosis. Toxicology 2006; 220: 819.
  • 4
    Tsai YS, Lee KW, Huang JL, Liu YS, Juo SH, Kuo WR, Chang JG, Lin CS, Jong YJ. Arecoline, a major alkaloid of areca nut, inhibits p53, represses DNA repair, and triggers DNA damage response in human epithelial cells. Toxicology 2008; 249: 2307.
  • 5
    Lee CH, Ko YC, Huang HL, Chao YY, Tsai CC, Shieh TY, Lin LM. The precancer risk of betel quid chewing, tobacco use and alcohol consumption in oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis in southern Taiwan. Br J Cancer 2003; 88: 36672.
  • 6
    Ko YC, Huang YL, Lee CH, Chen MJ, Lin LM, Tsai CC. Betel quid chewing, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption related to oral cancer in Taiwan. J Oral Pathol Med 1995; 24: 4503.
  • 7
    Lee KW, Kuo WR, Tsai SM, Wu DC, Wang WM, Fang FM, Chiang FY, Ho KY, Wang LF, Tai CF, Kao EL, Chou SH, et al. Different impact from betel quid, alcohol and cigarette: risk factors for pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer. Int J Cancer 2005; 117: 8316.
  • 8
    Lee CH, Lee JM, Wu DC, Hsu HK, Kao EL, Huang HL, Wang TN, Huang MC, Wu MT. Independent and combined effects of alcohol intake, tobacco smoking and betel quid chewing on the risk of esophageal cancer in Taiwan. Int J Cancer 2005; 113: 47582.
  • 9
    Jeng JE, Tsai HR, Chuang LY, Tsai JF, Lin ZY, Hsieh MY, Chen SC, Chuang WL, Wang LY, Yu ML, Dai CY, Chang JG. Independent and additive interactive effects among tumor necrosis factor-alpha polymorphisms, substance use habits, and chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection on risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Medicine (Baltimore) 2009; 88: 34957.
  • 10
    Chiang SL, Chen PH, Lee CH, Ko AM, Lee KW, Lin YC, Ho PS, Tu HP, Wu DC, Shieh TY, Ko YC. Up-regulation of inflammatory signalings by areca nut extract and role of cyclooxygenase-2-1195G>a polymorphism reveal risk of oral cancer. Cancer Res 2008; 68: 848998.
  • 11
    Lee CH, Lee KW, Fang FM, Wu DC, Shieh TY, Huang HL, Chen CH, Chen PH, Chen MK, Kuo SJ, Chang CH, Tsai YS, et al. The use of tobacco-free betel-quid in conjunction with alcohol/tobacco impacts early-onset age and carcinoma distribution for upper aerodigestive tract cancer. J Oral Pathol Med 2011; 40: 68492.
  • 12
    Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 2005; 55: 74108.
  • 13
    DOH, Department of Health (ROC), Executive Yuan, Republic of China. Cancer registry annual report: 1991–2005. Taipei: Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taiwan, ROC, 2007.
  • 14
    IARC. Alcohol drinking. IARC Working Group, Lyon, 13–20 October 1987. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 1988; 44: 1378.
  • 15
    IARC. Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 2004; 83: 11438.
  • 16
    Baan R, Straif K, Grosse Y, Secretan B, El Ghissassi F, Bouvard V, Altieri A, Cogliano V. Carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages. Lancet Oncol 2007; 8: 2923.
  • 17
    Polesel J, Talamini R, La Vecchia C, Levi F, Barzan L, Serraino D, Franceschi S, Dal Maso L. Tobacco smoking and the risk of upper aero-digestive tract cancers: a reanalysis of case-control studies using spline models. Int J Cancer 2008; 122: 2398402.
  • 18
    Lee CH, Wu DC, Lee JM, Wu IC, Goan YG, Kao EL, Huang HL, Chan TF, Chou SH, Chou YP, Lee CY, Chen PS, et al. Carcinogenetic impact of alcohol intake on squamous cell carcinoma risk of the oesophagus in relation to tobacco smoking. Eur J Cancer 2007; 43: 118899.
  • 19
    Hastie T, Tibshirani R. Generalized additive models. London: Chapman & Hall, 1990.
  • 20
    Rothman K, Greenland S. Modern epidemiology, 2nd edn. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1998.
  • 21
    Mickey RM, Greenland S. The impact of confounder selection criteria on effect estimation. Am J Epidemiol 1989; 129: 12537.
  • 22
    Lee CH, Yang SF, Peng CY, Li RN, Chen YC, Chan TF, Tsai EM, Kuo FC, Huang JJ, Tsai HT, Hung YH, Huang HL, et al. The precancerous effect of emitted cooking oil fumes on precursor lesions of cervical cancer. Int J Cancer 2010; 127: 93241.
  • 23
    S-plus 6.1 software. Seattle, WA: Insightful Corporation, 2002.
  • 24
    Pastor R, Guallar E. Use of two-segmented logistic regression to estimate change-points in epidemiologic studies. Am J Epidemiol 1998; 148: 63142.
  • 25
    Bruzzi P, Green SB, Byar DP, Brinton LA, Schairer C. Estimating the population attributable risk for multiple risk factors using case-control data. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 122: 90414.
  • 26
    Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S. Confidence interval estimation of interaction. Epidemiology 1992; 3: 4526.
  • 27
    IARC. Betel-quid and areca-nut chewing and some areca-nut derived nitrosamines. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 2004; 85: 1334.
  • 28
    Secretan B, Straif K, Baan R, Grosse Y, El Ghissassi F, Bouvard V, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Guha N, Freeman C, Galichet L, Cogliano V. A review of human carcinogens--Part E: tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, coal smoke, and salted fish. Lancet Oncol 2009; 10: 10334.
  • 29
    Cox S, Vickers ER, Ghu S, Zoellner H. Salivary arecoline levels during areca nut chewing in human volunteers. J Oral Pathol Med 2010; 39: 4659.
  • 30
    Chang MJ, Ko CY, Lin RF, Hsieh LL. Biological monitoring of environment exposure to safrole and the Taiwanese betel quid chewing. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2002; 43: 4327.
  • 31
    Chen CL, Chi CW, Chang KW, Liu TY. Safrole-like DNA adducts in oral tissue from oral cancer patients with a betel quid chewing history. Carcinogenesis 1999; 20: 23314.
  • 32
    Lee JM, Liu TY, Wu DC, Tang HC, Leh J, Wu MT, Hsu HH, Huang PM, Chen JS, Lee CJ, Lee YC. Safrole-DNA adducts in tissues from esophageal cancer patients: clues to areca-related esophageal carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 2005; 565: 1218.
  • 33
    Lee CH, Wu DC, Lee JM, Wu IC, Goan YG, Kao EL, Huang HL, Chan TF, Chou SH, Chou YP, Ho CK, Wu MT. Anatomical subsite discrepancy in relation to the impact of the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and betel quid on esophageal cancer. Int J Cancer 2007; 120: 175562.
  • 34
    Misra SP, Misra V, Dwivedi M, Gupta SC. Oesophageal subepithelial fibrosis: an extension of oral submucosal fibrosis. Postgrad Med J 1998; 74: 7336.
  • 35
    Muwonge R, Ramadas K, Sankila R, Thara S, Thomas G, Vinoda J, Sankaranarayanan R. Role of tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol drinking in the risk of oral cancer in Trivandrum, India: a nested case-control design using incident cancer cases. Oral Oncol 2008; 44: 44654.
  • 36
    Znaor A, Brennan P, Gajalakshmi V, Mathew A, Shanta V, Varghese C, Boffetta P. Independent and combined effects of tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol drinking on the risk of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal cancers in Indian men. Int J Cancer 2003; 105: 6816.
  • 37
    Lee CH, Lee JM, Wu DC, Goan YG, Chou SH, Wu IC, Kao EL, Chan TF, Huang MC, Chen PS, Lee CY, Huang CT, et al. Carcinogenetic impact of ADH1B and ALDH2 genes on squamous cell carcinoma risk of the esophagus with regard to the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and betel quid. Int J Cancer 2008; 122: 134756.
  • 38
    Chen JW, Shaw JH. A study on betel quid chewing behavior among Kaohsiung residents aged 15 years and above. J Oral Pathol Med 1996; 25: 1403.
  • 39
    Ko YC, Chiang TA, Chang SJ, Hsieh SF. Prevalence of betel quid chewing habit in Taiwan and related sociodemographic factors. J Oral Pathol Med 1992; 21: 2614.
  • 40
    Wu DM, Pai L, Sun PK, Hsu LL, Sun CA. Joint effects of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking on atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein profiles: results from a study of Chinese male population in Taiwan. Eur J Epidemiol 2001; 17: 62935.