3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have shown inverse associations with cancer risks, but the results have been inconsistent. As there are no previous published data in brain tumors, we conducted a case–control study to investigate statin therapy and risk of glioma. We further evaluated the use of nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and risk of these tumors. We recruited newly diagnosed glioma cases and frequency matched controls at Columbia University and the University of California San Francisco. Standardized questions on statins and NSAIDs were used at both institutions. Intakes of these drugs were defined as >6 months of at least twice weekly use versus less than this amount or never use. From July 2007 to January 2010, we recruited a total of 517 cases and 400 controls. Simvastatin and lovastatin showed significant inverse associations with glioma (odds ratio [OR] = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30, 0.81 and OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.24, 0.93, respectively). For NSAIDs, aspirin use was also inversely related to glioma risk (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.49, 0.96). Both statins and NSAIDs showed significant inverse trends between the duration of drug use and glioma risk (trend tests p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively), and drug intake for >120 months demonstrated the most significant associations for both types of medication. The inverse association between statin therapy and risk of glioma supports the roles of Ras/Rho GTPases or inflammatory cytokines in gliomagenesis, and a similar relationship between NSAIDs and glioma highlights the importance of cyclo-oxygenase 2 in glioma pathogenesis.