• 1
    Esteller M, Corn PG, Baylin SB, Herman JG. A gene hypermethylation profile of human cancer. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 32259.
  • 2
    Jones PA, Baylin SB. The fundamental role of epigenetic events in cancer. Nat Rev Genet 2002; 3: 41528.
  • 3
    Jemal A, Center MM, DeSantis C, Ward EM. Global patterns of cancer incidence and mortality rates and trends. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010; 19: 1893907.
  • 4
    Yuasa Y. Control of gut differentiation and intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis. Nat Rev Cancer 2003; 3: 592600.
  • 5
    Tsugane S, Sasazuki S. Diet and the risk of gastric cancer: review of epidemiological evidence. Gastric Cancer 2007; 10: 7583.
  • 6
    Toyota M, Ahuja N, Suzuki H, Itoh F, Ohe-Toyota M, Imai K, Baylin SB, Issa JP. Aberrant methylation in gastric cancer associated with the CpG island methylator phenotype. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 543842.
  • 7
    Ushijima T, Nakajima T, Maekita T. DNA methylation as a marker for the past and future. J Gastroenterol 2006; 41: 4017.
  • 8
    Kang GH, Lee S, Cho NY, Gandamihardja T, Long TI, Weisenberger DJ, Campan M, Laird PW. DNA methylation profiles of gastric carcinoma characterized by quantitative DNA methylation analysis. Lab Invest 2008; 88: 16170.
  • 9
    Wanajo A, Sasaki A, Nagasaki H, Shimada S, Otsubo T, Owaki S, Shimizu Y, Eishi Y, Kojima K, Nakajima Y, Kawano T, Yuasa Y, et al. Methylation of the calcium channel-related gene, CACNA2D3, is frequent and a poor prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Gastroenterology 2008; 135: 58090.
  • 10
    Yuasa Y, Nagasaki H, Akiyama Y, Sakai H, Nakajima T, Ohkura Y, Takizawa T, Koike M, Tani M, Iwai T, Sugihara K, Imai K, et al. Relationship between CDX2 gene methylation and dietary factors in gastric cancer patients. Carcinogenesis 2005; 26: 193200.
  • 11
    Yuasa Y, Nagasaki H, Akiyama Y, Hashimoto Y, Takizawa T, Kojima K, Kawano T, Sugihara K, Imai K, Nakachi K. DNA methylation status is inversely correlated with green tea intake and physical activity in gastric cancer patients. Int J Cancer 2009; 124: 267782.
  • 12
    Yuasa Y. Epigenetics in molecular epidemiology of cancer: a new scope. Adv Genet 2010; 71: 21135.
  • 13
    Lim U, Flood A, Choi SW, Albanes D, Cross AJ, Schatzkin A, Sinha R, Katki HA, Cash B, Schoenfeld P, Stolzenberg-Solomon R. Genomic methylation of leukocyte DNA in relation to colorectal adenoma among asymptomatic women. Gastroenterology 2008; 134: 4755.
  • 14
    Choi JY, James SR, Link PA, McCann SE, Hong CC, Davis W, Nesline MK, Ambrosone CB, Karpf AR. Association between global DNA hypomethylation in leukocytes and risk of breast cancer. Carcinogenesis 2009; 30: 188997.
  • 15
    Hou L, Wang H, Sartori S, Gawron A, Lissowska J, Bollati V, Tarantini L, Zhang FF, Zatonski W, Chow WH, Baccarelli A. Blood leukocyte DNA hypomethylation and gastric cancer risk in a high-risk Polish population. Int J Cancer 2010; 127: 186674.
  • 16
    Cui H, Cruz-Correa M, Giardiello FM, Hutcheon DF, Kafonek DR, Brandenburg S, Wu Y, He X, Powe NR, Feinberg AP. Loss of IGF2 imprinting: a potential marker of colorectal cancer risk. Science 2003; 299: 17535.
  • 17
    Jelinic P, Shaw P. Loss of imprinting and cancer. J Pathol 2007; 211: 2618.
  • 18
    Zuo Q-S, Yan R, Feng D-X, Zhao R, Chen C, Jiang Y-M, Cruz-Correa M, Casson AG, Kang X-D, Han F, Chen T. Loss of imprinting and abnormal expression of the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene in gastric cancer. Mol Carcinogen 2011; 50: 3906.
  • 19
    Ito Y, Koessler T, Ibrahim AE, Raim S, Vowler SL, Abu-Amerom S, Silvam AL, Maia AT, Huddleston JE, Uribe-Lewis S, Woodfine K, Jagodic M, et al. Somatically acquired hypomethylation of IGF2 in breast and colorectal cancer. Hum Mol Genet 2008; 17: 263343.
  • 20
    Kaaks R, Stattin P, Villar S, Poetsch AR, Dossusm L, Nieters A, Riboli E, Palmqvist R, Hallmans G, Plass C, Friesen MD. Insulin-like growth factor-II methylation status in lymphocyte DNA and colon cancer risk in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease cohort. Cancer Res 2009; 69: 54005.
  • 21
    Ahuja N, Li Q, Mohan AL, Baylin SB, Issa JP. Aging and DNA methylation in colorectal mucosa and cancer. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 548994.
  • 22
    Bashyam MD, Bair R, Kim YH, Wang P, Hernandez-Boussard T, Karikari CA, Tibshirani R, Maitra A, Pollack JR. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization identifies localized DNA amplifications and homozygous deletions in pancreatic cancer. Neoplasia 2005; 7: 55662.
  • 23
    Pils D, Horak P, Gleiss A, Sax C, Fabjani G, Moebus VJ, Zielinski C, Reinthaller A, Zeillinger R, Krainer M. Five genes from chromosomal band 8p22 are significantly down-regulated in ovarian carcinoma: N33 and EFA6R have a potential impact on overall survival. Cancer 2005; 104: 241729.
  • 24
    Cooke SL, Pole JC, Chin SF, Ellis IO, Caldas C, Edwards PA. High-resolution array CGH clarifies events occurring on 8p in carcinogenesis. Biomed Chromatogr Cancer 2008; 8: 288.
  • 25
    Hamajima N, Matsuo K, Saito T, Hirose K, Inoue M, Takezaki T, Kuroishi T, Tajima K. Gene-environment interactions and polymorphism studies of cancer risk in the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center II (HERPACC-II). Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 2001; 2: 99107.
  • 26
    Tajima K, Hirose K, Inoue M, Takezaki T, Hamajima N, Kuroishi T. A model of practical cancer prevention for out-patients visiting a hospital: the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center (HERPACC). Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 2000; 1: 3547.
  • 27
    Tokudome S, Goto C, Imaeda N, Tokudome Y, Ikeda M, Maki S. Development of a data-based short food frequency questionnaire for assessing nutrient intake by middle-aged Japanese. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 2004; 5: 403.
  • 28
    Willett W, Stampfer M. Implications of total energy intake for epidemiologic analyses. In: Willett W, ed. Nutritional epidemiology, 2nd edn. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. 273301.
  • 29
    Tokudome Y, Goto C, Imaeda N, Hasegawa T, Kato R, Hirose K, Tajima K, Tokudome S. Relative validity of a short food frequency questionnaire for assessing nutrient intake versus three-day weighed diet records in middle-aged Japanese. J Epidemiol 2005; 15: 13545.
  • 30
    Watanabe Y, Kurata JH, Mizuno S, Mukai M, Inokuchi H, Miki K, Ozasa K, Kawai K. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer. A nested case-control study in a rural area of Japan. Dig Dis Sci 1997; 42: 13837.
  • 31
    Watabe H, Mitsushima T, Yamaji Y, Okamoto M, Wada R, Kokubo T, Doi H, Yoshida H, Kawabe T, Omata M. Predicting the development of gastric cancer from combining Helicobacter pylori antibodies and serum pepsinogen status: a prospective endoscopic cohort study. Gut 2005; 54: 7648.
  • 32
    Wu M-S, Wang H-P, Lin C-C, Sheu J-C, Shun C-T, Lee W-J, Lin J-T. Loss of imprinting and overexpression of IGF2 gene in gastric adenocarcinoma. Cancer Lett 1997; 120: 914.
  • 33
    Baba Y, Nosho K, Shima K, Huttenhower C, Tanaka N, Hazra A, Giovannucci EL, Fuchs CS, Ogino S. Hypomethylation of the IGF2 DMR in colorectal tumors, detected by bisulfite pyrosequencing, is associated with poor prognosis. Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 185564.
  • 34
    Zhao R, Berho M, Nogueras J, Sands D, Weiss E, Wexner S, Giardiello FM, Cruz-Correa M. Positive correlation of insulin-like growth factor-II with proliferating cell index in patients with colorectal neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 181922.
  • 35
    Teschendorff AE, Menon U, Gentry-Maharaj A, Ramus SJ, Gayther SA, Apostolidou S, Jones A, Lechner M, Beck S, Jacobs IJ, Widschwendter M. An epigenetic signature in peripheral blood predicts active ovarian cancer. PLoS One 2009; 4: e8274.
  • 36
    Nicolucci A. Epidemiological aspects of neoplasms in diabetes. Acta Diabetol 2010; 47: 8795.
  • 37
    Herceg Z. Epigenetics and cancer: towards an evaluation of the impact of environmental and dietary factors. Mutagenesis 2007; 22: 91103.
  • 38
    Arasaradnam RP, Commane DM, Bradburn D, Mathers JC. A review of dietary factors and its influence on DNA methylation in colorectal carcinogenesis. Epigenetics 2008; 3: 1938.