We considered trends in mortality from leukemia in Europe over the period 1970–2009 using data from the World Health Organization. We computed age-standardized (world population) mortality rates, at all ages and in selected age groups, in 11 selected European countries, the European Union (EU) and, for comparative purposes, in the USA and Japan. For the EU, we also provided projections of the mortality to 2012. Over the period considered, mortality from leukemia steadily declined in most European countries in children and young adults, as well as in western and southern Europe at middle-age (45–69 years); in central/eastern Europe, reductions at ages 45–69 started since the mid-late 1990s. In the EU, annual percent changes were −3.7% in males and −3.8% in females at age 0–14, −2% in both sexes at age 15–44, and −0.6% in males and −1% in females at middle-age and overall. No decline was observed at age 70 or more. Between 1997 and 2007, overall EU rates decreased from 5.4 to 4.8/100,000 males and from 3.4 to 2.9/100,000 females. Declines were from 6.2 to 5.5/100,000 males and from 3.7 to 3.2/100,000 females in the USA and from 3.9 to 3.5/100,000 males and from 2.5 to 2.0/100,000 females in Japan. Projected overall rates in the EU at 2012 are 4.3/100,000 males (−11% compared to 2007) and 2.6/100,000 females (−12%).