Patients who had a colorectal cancer have a 1.5- to 2-fold excess risk of a second colorectal cancer as compared to the general population, the excess being higher at younger age at diagnosis. To further investigate the risk and the age-relation of the incidence of second primary colorectal cancer, we considered 9,389 first colon and rectal cancers registered in the Vaud Cancer Registry, Switzerland, between 1974 and 2008, and followed-up to the end of 2008 for a total of 44,113 person-years. There were 136 second colorectal cancers versus 90.5 expected, corresponding to a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.3–1.8). The SIRs were not heterogeneous between men and women, and in strata of calendar year at diagnosis, duration of follow-up, and subsite. However, the SIR was 7.5 (95% CI 4.2–12.4) for subjects diagnosed below age 50 and declined thereafter to reach 1.0 (95% CI 0.6–1.6) at age 80 or over. Consequently, the incidence of second primary colorectal cancer was stable, and exceedingly high, around 300–400/100,000 between age 30–39 and 70 or over. This age pattern is consistent with the existence of a single mutational event in a population of highly susceptible individuals.